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A Gray Schist Relief with the Bodhisattva Maitreya and Devotees

弥勒菩萨和信徒们的灰色片岩

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Antique Information

A Gray Schist Relief with the Bodhisattva Maitreya and Devotees

弥勒菩萨和信徒们的灰色片岩

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:古代犍陀罗
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 41.6H x 68.6W (cm) 尺寸:高41.6、宽68.6(厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 612 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的贡品:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,第2870项612拍买品由佛牙寺标得

Provenance:

Spink & Son, Ltd., London, by 1986. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

出处:

1986年,Spink & Son Ltd。 1990年,日本,私人收藏


Literature 学术: I. Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. II, Tokyo, 1990, p. 25, fig. 47. M. Akira, ed., Iconography of Nirvana and Maitreya - from India to Central Asia, Tokyo, 1992, no. 165. M. Akira, Gandharan Art and Bamiyan Site, Tokyo, 2006, p. 52, no. 18.

The Antique was featured in Christie's 'Devotion in Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection'.

The Antique will be featured in our 'Buddhas of the World Museum: Buddha Maitreya'.


Description

This is an exceptional piece of the Bodhisattva Maitreya depicted seated on a raised throne, his legs crossed at the ankles and his feet resting on a stool; an expression developed in Gandhara which had an unprecedented influence on the later Buddhist art of East Asia, especially in China and Korea, from 6th century CE onwards.

Crossed-ankle Bodhisattva Maitreya are commonly found in the famous Buddhist Grottoes in China. Here, the deep relief is sensitively rendered, carved with superb attention to the stylized chignons, individuated facial features, powerful physical forms, and the jewellery and raiment of the figures.

In his lowered left hand, he holds the sacred water vessel (Kundika) containing Amrita (the elixir of life), which is a symbolic promise of salvation in the future, the spiritual role of the Maitreya. His right hand is raised, palm turned inward, and this unusual gesture known as Vismayahasta, signifying astonishment and wonder, appears often on Gandharan Maitreyas and is preserved in later Kashmiri and Swat Valley representations of this deity.

The preaching Maitreya is flanked by ten devotees, five on each side; the devotees on the right are dressed lavishly in voluminous drapery while the devotees on the left are plainly dressed, extending their offerings to the Maitreya.

The BTRTM collection carries a few sculptures of the Maitreya, and we believe that this will be a good addition to the descend of Bodhisattva Maitreya, as it shows the important link between the Gandharan and Buddhist Grottoes in China such as Longmen, Yungang and more.

Historical Background

The name Maitreya is derived from the Sanskrit maitrī (“friendliness”). In Pali the name becomes Metteyya, in Chinese Milefo, in Japanese Miroku, and in Mongolian Maidari; in Tibetan the bodhisattva is known as Byams-pa (“Kind,” or “Loving”).

The Maitreya makes his first appearance in Buddhist scriptures in the Cakkavatti Sutta of the Pali Tipitika (Digha Nikaya 26), making him the earliest Bodhisattva and the only one mentioned in the text of both Mahayana and Therava traditions. In some Buddhist literature, the Maitreya is referred to as Ajita in the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra.

Maitreya is a name of double implications, he is the most renowned of Bodhisattvas who is now in the Tusita heaven and will lead the coming era; as a Buddha he would attain Enlightenment, an ideal stage of intellectual and highest ethical perfection. He will come for the deliverance of all conscious beings. Therefore, he is the positive hope for the suffering humanity of the coming age, and he is the most excellent & renowned of Bodhisattvas and Buddhas in the Buddhist pantheon.

Some of the first images of Maitreya were sculpted in Gandhara and displayed together with early representations of the Historical Buddha in small shrines along the edges of sacred areas facing central relic stupas. Such depictions of the Bodhisattva-Buddha Maitreya continues to spread from the centre of ancient India to other parts of civilisations (the South-East Asia; Thailand, Myanmar; Central Asia: China, Mongolia, South Korea and Japan the Himalayas: Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet), along the famed Silk Route towards the Tarim Basin.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Kurt Behrendt, How to Read Buddhist Art, 2020, ISBN 978-1-58839-673-0
  2. Dorothy C. Wong, Chinese Steles: Pre-Buddhist and Buddhist Use of a Symbolic Form, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0824827830

Websites:

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/maitreya2.htm
  2. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/dharmadata/fdd28.htm
  3. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Maitreya-Buddhism

介绍

我们现在接受任何金额的赞助,一旦筹款金额达到目标,我们将停止对“灰岩浮雕弥勒菩萨和信徒”的筹款。

工艺品

A Gray Schist Relief with the Bodhisattva Maitreya and Devotees

弥勒菩萨和信徒们的灰色片岩

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:古代犍陀罗
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 41.6H x 68.6W (cm) 尺寸:高41.6、宽68.6(厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 612 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的贡品:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,第2870项612拍买品由佛牙寺标得

Provenance:

Spink & Son, Ltd., London, by 1986. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

出处:

1986年,Spink & Son Ltd。 1990年,日本,私人收藏


Literature 学术: I. Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. II, Tokyo, 1990, p. 25, fig. 47. M. Akira, ed., Iconography of Nirvana and Maitreya - from India to Central Asia, Tokyo, 1992, no. 165. M. Akira, Gandharan Art and Bamiyan Site, Tokyo, 2006, p. 52, no. 18.

文艺品在佳士得“石刻的贡品:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出

文艺品将会在本寺世界佛像博物馆:弥勒佛亮相


描述

这是一尊特殊的米勒菩萨的作品,菩萨坐在垫高的宝座上,双腿交叉在脚踝上,脚搁在凳子上。从6世纪起,犍陀罗艺术表达形式对东亚的佛教艺术,尤其是中国和韩国的佛教艺术产生了前所未有的影响。

交叉脚踝的弥勒菩萨形象常见于中国很多著名的石窟。在这里,深层浮雕刻画细腻,发髻雕刻精湛,个性化的面容特征,宽阔的身型,以及对珠宝和人物服装的雕刻都非常细腻入微。

他下方的左手拿着圣水瓶(净水瓶),瓶中装着甘露(生命的灵丹妙药),象征着弥勒菩萨护佑众生。他的右手高举,手掌向内,这种不常见的姿态被称为“维思玛雅哈斯塔”(Vismayahasta),象征着惊讶和惊奇, 这样的形象经常出现在克什米尔晚期和斯瓦特出土的犍陀罗的弥勒菩萨雕塑上。

在传道的弥勒菩萨两侧有十位信徒,每侧各五位。右边的信徒穿着奢侈层叠的衣服,左边的信徒穿着朴素的衣服,信徒们向菩萨弥勒供奉。

佛牙寺龙华院的藏品中有几尊弥勒菩萨的雕塑,我们相信这将是弥勒菩萨降世的一个很好的补充,因为这展现了犍陀罗艺术和中国佛教石窟,如龙门石窟,云冈石窟等之间的重要关联。

历史背景

弥勒菩萨的名字来源于梵文 maitrī (“友好”)。中文在巴利语名称变得 Metteyya Milefo,在日本的弥勒佛像,在蒙古 Maidari;在西藏菩萨称为 Byams-pa(“爱”)。

弥勒首次出现在巴利提皮提卡(DighaNikaya 26)的卡卡瓦蒂寺(CakkavattiSutta)的佛教经文中,使他成为最早的菩萨,也是大乘和上乘传统中唯一提及的菩萨。在一些佛教文献中,弥勒经被比照为阿弥陀佛经和妙法莲花经。

弥勒是一个有双重含义的名字,他是最著名的菩萨,即是今生受神灵护佑,来世往生兜率天宫。作为一个佛陀,他将达到觉悟,一个理想的智力和最高的道德完美的阶段。他会拯救有意识的生命。因此,他是众生承受苦难时的希望,他是佛教圣殿中最杰出和最著名的菩萨和佛陀。

弥勒最初的一些形象出现在犍陀罗雕刻中,与历史上佛陀的早期形象一起出现在面向中心舍利塔的 边缘的小神龛上。这种对菩萨弥勒佛的描绘从古印度中心沿着塔里木盆地著名的丝绸之路,传播到其他文明地区(东南亚;泰国、缅甸;中亚地区:中国、蒙古、韩国、日本喜马拉雅山:尼泊尔、不丹和西藏)。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Kurt Behrendt, How to Read Buddhist Art, 2020, ISBN 978-1-58839-673-0
  2. Dorothy C. Wong, Chinese Steles: Pre-Buddhist and Buddhist Use of a Symbolic Form, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0824827830

参考网站

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/maitreya2.htm
  2. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/dharmadata/fdd28.htm
  3. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Maitreya-Buddhism
Sponsorship

A Green Schist Relief Depicting the Parinirvana

描绘大般涅槃的绿色片岩浮雕

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0.03% of Sponsorship Achieved

Antique Information

A Green Schist Relief Depicting the Parinirvana

描绘大般涅槃的绿色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara, Probably Swat Valley 来源地:犍陀罗古代地区,可能是斯瓦特山谷
Material: Green Schist 材质:青色片岩
Dimensions: 16.2H x 34W (cm) 尺寸:高16.2、宽34(厘米)
Period: 2nd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元二至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 627 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍627号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品

Provenance:

Private Collection, Europe by,1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

欧洲私人收藏,1988年。重要的私人收藏,日本,1990年


Literature 学术:I.Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p.246, fig.491

The Antique was featured in Christie's 'Devotion in Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection'.

The Antique will be featured in our 'Buddhas of the World Museum: Buddha Shakyamuni'.


Description

The present relief depicts the moment when the Buddha enters Mahaparinirvana, drawing attention to the moment He leaves His enlightened body, having attained nibbana – releasing Him from Samsara (karmic cycle of rebirths), freeing Him from any substratum of further becoming.

The scene is characterized by the juxtaposition of the states of grief and peace—the anguish of the mourners to the left against the serenity of the Buddha’s material body and the seated figure at right.

The feet of the Buddha are straightened in a parallel alignment, signifying His imminent entry into Mahaparinirvana.

The Mahaparinirvana is thus described as the realm of the eternal true Anatta (Self) of the Buddha.

Historical Background

The Mahaparinirvana Sutra described the event when Buddha was preparing and entering Mahaparinirvana.1, 2, 3 p73, 4 c14

The Buddha went to Pava and stayed at the mango grove of Cunda the smith.

4.20. And after having eaten the meal provided by Cunda, the Lord was attacked by a severe sickness with bloody diarrhea, and with sharp pains as if He were about to die. But He endured all this mindfully and clearly aware, and without complaint. Then the Lord said: 'Ānanda, let us go to Kusināra.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda.

4.38. Tonight, Ānanda, in the last watch, in the sāl-grove of the Mallas near Kusinārā, between two sāl-trees, the Tathāgata's final passing will take place. And now, Ānanda, let us go to the River Kakutthā.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda.

5.1. The Lord said: 'Ānanda, let us cross the Hiraññavatī River and go to the Mallas' sāl-grove in the vicinity of Kusinārā.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda, and the Lord, with a large company of monks, crossed the river and went to the sāl-grove. There the Lord said: 'Ānanda, prepare me a bed between these twin sāl-trees with my head to the north. I am tired and want to lie down.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda, and did so. Then the Lord lay down on His right side in the lion-posture, placing one foot on the other, mindful and dearly aware.

5.2. And those twin sāl-trees burst forth into an abundance of untimely blossoms, which fell upon the Tathāgata's body, sprinkling it and covering it in homage. Divine coral-tree flowers fell from the sky, divine sandal-wood powder fell from the sky, sprinkling and covering the Tathāgata's body in homage. Divine music and song sounded from the sky in homage to the Tathāgata.

5.11. 'But, Lord, what are we to do with the Tathāgata's remains?' 'Ānanda, they should be dealt with like the remains of a wheel-turning monarch.' 'And how is that, Lord?' ' Ānanda, the remains of a wheel-turning monarch are wrapped in a new linen-doth. This they wrap in teased cotton wool, and this in a new cloth. Having done these five hundred times each, they enclose the king's body in an oil-vat of iron, which is covered with another iron pot. Then having made a funeral-pyre of all manner of perfumes they cremate the king's body, and they raise a stupa at a crossroads. That, Ānanda, is what they do with the remains of a wheel-turning monarch, and they should deal with the Tathāgata's body in the same way. A stupa should be erected at the crossroads for the Tathāgata. And whoever lays wreaths or puts sweet perfumes and colors there with a devout heart, will reap benefit and happiness for a long time.

5.19. 'And now, Ānanda, go to Kusinārā and announce to the Mallas of Kusinārā: 'Tonight, Vāsetthas, in the last watch, the Tathāgata will attain Final Nibbāna. Approach Him, Vāseṭṭhas, approach Him, lest later you should regret it, saying: The Tathāgata passed away in our parish, and we did not take the opportunity to see Him for the last time!"" 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda and, taking robe and bowl, he went with a companion to Kusinārā.

6.7. Then the Lord said to the monks: 'Now, monks, I declare to you: all conditioned things are of a nature to decay - strive on untiringly.' These were the Tathāgata's last words.

6.8. Then the Lord entered the first jhāna. And leaving that He entered the second, the third, the fourth jhāna. Then leaving the fourth jhāna, He entered the Sphere of Infinite Space, then the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, then the Sphere of No-Thingness, then the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-perception, and leaving that He attained the Cessation of Feeling and Perception.

6.9. Then the Lord, leaving the attainment of the Cessation of Feeling and Perception, entered the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, from that He entered the Sphere of Nothingness, the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, the Sphere of Infinite Space. From the Sphere of Infinite Space, He entered the fourth jhāna, from there the third, the second and the first jhāna. Leaving the first jhāna, He entered the second, the third, the fourth jhāna. And, leaving the fourth jhāna, the Lord finally passed away.

6.10. And at the Blessed Lord's final passing there was a great earthquake, terrible and hair-raising, accompanied by thunder.

Brahma Sahampati uttered this with the passing of the Buddha with a resounding earthquake:

All beings in the world, all bodies must break up:
Even the Teacher, peerless in the human world,
The mighty Lord and perfect Buddha has passed away.

Sakka, king of Devas uttered this

‘Impermanent are compounded things, prone to rise and fall,
Having risen, they are destroyed, their passing truest bliss.’

Venerable Anuruddha uttered this:

‘No breathing in and out – just with steadfast heart
The Sage who is free from lust has passed away to peace.
With mind unshaken He endured all pains:
By Nibbana the Illumined’s mind is freed

With the passing of the Buddha, His last words for all to heed were:

Vayadhamma sankhara,
Appamadena sampadetha
All conditioned things are subject to decay.
Strive on with diligence

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Mahaparinibbana Sutta
  2. Sister Vajira, Francis Story, Last Days of The Buddha : The Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 2007, ISBN 10-955-9219-98-7
  3. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  6. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  7. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  8. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  9. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  10. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

Websites:

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/2_31lbud.htm
  2. https://www.incredibleindia.org/content/incredible-india-v2/en/destinations/ayodhya/kushinagar.html
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushinagar

工艺品

A Green Schist Relief Depicting the Parinirvana

描绘大般涅槃的绿色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara, Probably Swat Valley 来源地:犍陀罗古代地区,可能是斯瓦特山谷
Material: Green Schist 材质:青色片岩
Dimensions: 16.2H x 34W (cm) 尺寸:高16.2、宽34(厘米)
Period: 2nd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元二至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 627 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍627号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品

Provenance:

Private Collection, Europe by,1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

欧洲私人收藏,1988年。重要的私人收藏,日本,1990年


Literature 学术:I.Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p.246, fig.491

文艺品在佳士得“石刻的贡品:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出

文艺品将会在本寺世界佛像博物馆:释迦牟尼佛亮相


描述

这篇浮雕描绘的是佛陀进入大槃的那一刻,将人们的注意力吸引到离开他觉悟身体的那一刻,他获得了涅槃——将他从轮回(业力轮回)中释放出来,从来世的六道轮回中解脱出来。

这一场景的特点是悲痛与和平的状态同时存在,哀悼者的痛苦在左边,与右边的佛陀宁静而安详的躯体形成对比。

佛陀的双足平行而卧,表示他即将进入大般涅盘。

大涅磐因此被描述为佛陀永恒的真我境界。

历史背景

《大般涅盘经》叙述了佛陀准备进入涅槃和进入涅槃时的情景。1, 2, 3 p73, 4 c14 佛陀去末罗国停留在铜匠纯陀所在的芒果林。

4.20.在吃完纯陀所贡献的食物后,佛陀突然患了重病,腹泻带血,巨痛难忍。但他却谨慎而清醒的忍受着,毫无怨言。佛陀说:“阿难,我们去拘尸那揭罗。” “是,师父”阿难回答道说。

4.38.今晚,阿难,在看最后一眼,在拘尸那揭罗的娑罗林中,两颗娑罗林中间,如来将最后入灭的地方。现在,阿难,我们去迦俱多河。“是,师父”阿难回答说。

5.1.佛陀说:“阿难,我们穿过阿恃多伐底河,去拘尸那揭罗的娑罗林。“是,师父”阿难回答说。于是佛陀在众弟子的跟随下,过河来到了娑罗林。在那里佛陀说道:“阿难,给我在两棵娑罗树中间铺下卧具,头部向北,我已经很累,愿在这里入灭”。“是,师父”阿难回答道,并照做。然后佛陀躺下,如雄狮般向右侧偃卧,一只脚放置在另一只脚上,非常清醒。

5.2.那两颗娑罗树同时开花,落在如来身上。神圣的白色的曼珠沙花和檀香木粉从天飘落,覆盖在佛陀身上。天边传来神圣的音乐和歌曲向佛陀致敬。

5.11. “但是师父,我们该如何处理如来的遗体呢?”阿难问道。”阿难,如来的遗体应该像转轮王那样处理“。“怎么做呢?”“阿难,转轮王的遗体被包裹在新的亚麻布中,他们用缠过的棉絮把遗体包起来,再用新的布把它包裹起来,包裹五百次之后,他们把转轮王的遗体装在盛满油的铁缸中,缸里再盖铁罐。然后他们用各种香料把遗体火化,并在十字路口处建佛塔。阿难,这就是他们处理转轮王遗体的的方式,他们应该以同样的方式处理如来的遗体。建立一座佛塔,无论谁怀着虔诚的心在那里敬献花圈和香水,都将受到福佑。

5.19.“现在,阿难,去拘尸那揭罗并向末罗国宣布。今晚在末罗国看最后一眼之后,如来将会涅槃。找他,接近他,免得日后你会后悔的说:“我们的如来离开了,我没能有机会见他最后一面。” “是, 师父。“阿难回答道。然后拿起长袍和托钵,他跟一位同伴去了拘尸那揭罗。

6.7.然后,佛陀对弟子们说:“众徒,我向你们告诫:诸行法如是,不应生忧憹”这是佛祖生前最后的话语。

6.8.然后,佛陀进入了第一层禅那,而后进入到第二层,第三层和第四层禅那。之后他进入了无限空间。无受想行识,五蕴皆空。

6.9.然后佛陀开始没有感觉和知觉,进入了无觉的状态,然后进入无意识,无限空间的领域。从第四层禅那进入到第三层,第二层然后第一层。离开第一层,他又进入第二层,第三层,第四层,离开第四层禅那,他涅槃了。

6.10.佛陀临终时,发生了地震,令人毛骨悚然,还伴随着雷声。

大梵天萨汉巴帝在佛陀去世时发出震耳欲闻的声音:

世界上所有的众生,所有的身体都必须分裂
人类世界中独一无二的老师,
全能和完美的佛陀已经去世了。

天王帝释天说:

“无常是复杂的事物,倾向于起起落落,
复活了,毁灭了,他们离去是真正极乐。”

阿尼律陀尊者说:

“没有呼吸 —— 只有坚定的心
从凡尘中解脱出来的圣人已经平静地去世了。
他以坚定的精神忍受了所有的痛苦:
涅槃使心灵得到解脱

随着佛陀的去世,他留给所有人的临终遗言是:

诸行无常,
当精勤奋斗
诸行皆是坏灭法,应自精进不放逸,勤求出道

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Mahaparinibbana Sutta
  2. Sister Vajira, Francis Story, Last Days of The Buddha : The Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 2007, ISBN 10-955-9219-98-7
  3. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  6. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  7. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  8. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  9. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  10. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

参考网站

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/2_31lbud.htm
  2. https://www.incredibleindia.org/content/incredible-india-v2/en/destinations/ayodhya/kushinagar.html
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushinagar
Sponsorship

A Gray Schist Relief Depicting Buddha Shakyamuni Confronted By An Assassin of Devadatta

释迦摩尼佛面对提婆达多刺客的灰色片岩浮雕

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0.04% of Sponsorship Achieved

Antique Information

A Gray Schist Relief Depicting Buddha Shakyamuni Confronted By An Assassin of Devadatta

释迦摩尼佛面对提婆达多刺客的灰色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗古国
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 35.9H x 39.1W (cm) 尺寸:高35.9、宽39.1(厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 626 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍626号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品

Provenance:

Private collection, Europe, by 1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

1988年,欧洲私人收藏。 1990年,日本重要私人收藏


Literature 学术:I. Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p. 144, P3 – IX

The Antique was featured in Christie's 'Devotion in Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection'.

The Antique will be featured in our 'Buddhas of the World Museum: Buddha Shakyamuni'.


Description

This frieze recounts the scene where Devadatta initiated his first attempt to murder the Buddha, where he hired a man to kill the Buddha. The Buddha’s magnificent presence and His exposition of the Dharma stop the man from assassinating Him.

Against the backdrop of a grove, the murder is spotted with a blade-like tool in his right palm, while his left-hand rests above his bent left knee. The Buddha is seen raising His left hand in Abhya (Fearlessness) mudra, warding away the evil deed upon Him. The central scene (confrontation between the Buddha and the Assassin of Devadatta), is flanked by a female devotee with alms bowl and possibly Vajrapani (facial features and accompanying implement are diminished) with his Vajra (thunderbolt).

The BTRTM collection does not carry this narrative relief, and we believe that this will be a good addition to the life story of Buddha Shakyamuni, under the subtheme of The Confrontation of An Assassin by Devadatta.

Historical Background

Devadatta was the son of King Suppabuddha and his wife Pamita, who was an aunt of the Buddha. Devadatta's sister was Yasodhara, making him both a cousin and brother-in-law of the Buddha. Together with Ananda and other Sakyan princes, he entered the order of monks in the early part of the Buddha's ministry, but was unable to attain any stage of sainthood and so worked hard for the worldly psychic powers.

In his early days, he was a good monk known for his grace and psychic powers. Later he became conceited with worldly gain and fame. As his ill-will and jealousy towards the Buddha increased, he became the greatest personal enemy of the Buddha.

One day in a large assembly, which included kings and princes, Devadatta approached the Buddha and asked him to make him the leader of the Sangha. Since he was not capable and worthy enough, the Buddha turned down this request. Devadatta became very angry as a result and vowed to take revenge on the Buddha.

Although Devadatta was an evil monk, he had many admirers and followers. One of his chief supporters was King Ajatasattu, with whom he discussed his anger and plots for revenge. Together they planned to kill King Ajatasattu's father and rival, King Bimbisara and Devadatta's enemy, the Buddha. Ajatasattu succeeded in killing his father, but Devadatta failed to kill the Buddha despite three attempts.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

Websites:

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/2_5lbud.htm

工艺品

A Gray Schist Relief Depicting Buddha Shakyamuni Confronted By An Assassin of Devadatta

释迦摩尼佛面对提婆达多刺客的灰色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗古国
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 35.9H x 39.1W (cm) 尺寸:高35.9、宽39.1(厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 626 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍626号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品

Provenance:

Private collection, Europe, by 1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

1988年,欧洲私人收藏。 1990年,日本重要私人收藏


Literature 学术:I. Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p. 144, P3 – IX

文艺品在佳士得“石刻的贡品:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出

文艺品将会在本寺世界佛像博物馆:释迦牟尼佛亮相


描述

这幅壁画讲述了提婆达多第一次试图谋杀佛陀的场景,他雇了一个刺客来杀害佛陀。佛陀的威严和他对佛法的讲解阻止了这个人刺杀他。

在一个树丛的背景下,凶手的右手握着一把类似利刃的工具,而他的左手放在弯曲的左膝上。佛陀举左手作无畏印(无所畏惧),避开对他造成的伤害。中心场景(佛陀和提婆达多刺客之间的对峙),一侧是一位女信徒,她拿着托钵,另一侧可能是金刚手菩萨(面部特征和法器不明显)和他的金刚法器(雷电)。

佛牙寺龙华院的收藏品中缺乏描述这类佛陀故事的藏品,我们相信这件佛陀和提婆达多的对峙的藏品将是对释迦牟尼佛的生平的一个很好的补充。

历史背景

提婆达多是苏巴菩达国王和他的妻子帕米塔的儿子,帕米塔是佛陀的姑姑。提婆达多的妹妹是耶索达拉,这使他既是佛陀的堂弟也是妹夫。与阿难陀和其他释迦牟尼王子一起,他进入了僧团,但他无法达到任何阶段的觉醒,所以他致力于世俗灵异力量。

起初他是一个好的僧人,以他的仁慈和灵异功能而闻名。后来,他因世俗的名利而骄傲起来。随着他对佛陀的恶意和嫉妒的增加,他成为了佛陀最大的个人敌人。

一天,在一次包括国王和王子参加的大型集会上,提婆达多走近佛陀,请求佛陀任命他为僧伽的领袖。由于他的能力和价值不够,佛陀拒绝了这个请求。提婆达多非常生气,发誓要报复佛陀。

虽然提婆达多是一个邪恶的僧人,但他有许多崇拜者和追随者。他的主要支持者之一是国王阿卡塔萨图(King Ajatasattu),他与国王讨论了自己的愤怒和复仇计划。他们一起计划杀死阿伽塔苏国王的父亲和对手,频婆娑罗国王和提婆达多视为敌人的佛陀。阿伽萨图成功地杀死了他的父亲,但提婆达多三次尝试都没能杀害佛陀。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

参考网站

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/2_5lbud.htm
Sponsorship

A Gray Schist Relief of a Stupa

佛塔灰色片岩浮雕

0.05% Complete

0.05% of Sponsorship Achieved

Antique Information

A Gray Schist Relief of a Stupa

佛塔灰色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗古国
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 34.9H (cm) 尺寸:高34.9(厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 628 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍628号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品

Provenance:

Private Collection, Japan, by 1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

1988年,日本,私人收藏。 1990年,日本,重要私人收藏


Literature 学术:I. Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p.259, fig. 538

The Antique was featured in Christie's 'Devotion in Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection'.

The Antique will be featured in our 'Buddhas of the World Museum: Buddha Shakyamuni'.


Description

Following traditional design, this stupa consists of a cylindrical base, a structure called a drum (with checkerboard motif above and floral patterns below), and a hemispherical dome. This dome supports a post, surmounted by one or more canopies, that represents the axis of the world.

Typically, worshippers walk clockwise around the base of the dome, tracing the cyclic journey of the Buddha – birth, ageing, death and rebirth. For this Gandharan stupa, there are no narrative reliefs depicting the life of the Historical Buddha. The drum is elevated, resting on a square podium.

Sometimes lion columns mark the four corners of the podium, and Corinthian pilasters are added to the base and drum. In this case, the stupa is flanked by two Ashoka pillars, which is identified by the lion atop each column. The lion symbolises the lion’s roar indicating the spread of the Dharma far and wide.

This Gandharan stupa bears slight resemblance to the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple.

The BTRTM has a Gandharan artefact titled ‘Adoration of the Buddha and Stupa’ which shows Buddha inhabiting within the interior of the Stupa, but it does not show the Stupa as a whole entity. We believe that this will be a good addition to the life story of Buddha Shakyamuni or the Sacred Buddha Relic Chamber.

Historical Background

Before the onset of anthropomorphic depictions of the Buddha, aniconic symbols representing the Buddha’s enlightenment were central to representational devotion. Images such as the empty throne, the wheel, the Buddha’s footprint, and perhaps most lasting, the stupa reliquary, were interpreted as literal placeholders for the Buddha.

The stupa is regarded as an object of veneration as it encases the relic(s) of the Buddha (usually contained within reliquaries). Reliquaries encasing the relics are saturated with the Buddha’s power are regularly reused and reinterred in stupas. The monumental stupas built after the Buddha’s passing was not only seen as a symbol of The Buddha but as true power of the ruler who was the royal patronage of Buddhism.

In the 3rd century BCE, King Ashoka (272 – 232 BCE) of the North Indian Mauryan dynasty opened the eight original stupas (according to legend), further divided the Buddha’s remains after His Mahaparinirvana, and enshrined them in eighty-four thousand stupas (figurative number), thereby making the Buddha’s presence accessible to the people of his realm.

See King Ashoka and the Relics for more details.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 5
  2. King Asoka and Buddhism, Historical and Literary Studies, edited by Anuradha Seneviratna, Buddhist Publication Society, 1994, ISBN 978-955-24-0065-0
  3. Asokavadana (Legend of King Asoka), in the Divyavadanna (Divine Stories)
  4. Mahavamsa, The Great Chronicle of Ceylon, Wilhelm Geiger, Ph.D., Buddhist Culture Center, Sri Lanka, 1912

Websites:

  1. Ashoka the Great - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. http://sites.asiasociety.org/gandhara/exhibit-sections/narratives-and-architectural-context/#:~:text=In%20Gandhara%20a%20unique%20type,large%2C%20richly%20decorated%20false%20dormers

工艺品

A Gray Schist Relief of a Stupa

佛塔灰色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗古国
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 34.9H (cm) 尺寸:高34.9(厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 628 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍628号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品

Provenance:

Private Collection, Japan, by 1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

1988年,日本,私人收藏。 1990年,日本,重要私人收藏


Literature 学术:I. Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p.259, fig. 538

文艺品在佳士得“石刻的贡品:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出

文艺品将会在本寺世界佛像博物馆:释迦牟尼佛亮相


描述

按照传统的设计,这座佛塔包括一个圆柱形的底座,一个被称为鼓的结构(上面是棋盘图案,下面是花卉图案)和一个半球形的圆顶。这个圆顶支撑着一根柱子,上面有一个或多个檐篷,代表着世界的轴线。

一般情况下,信徒们沿着圆屋顶的底部顺时针走,沿着佛陀的循环旅程——出生、衰老、死亡和重生。在这座犍陀罗佛塔中,没有描述历史上佛陀生活的叙事性浮雕。鼓被抬高,放在一个方形的平台上。

有时,狮子柱标志着平台的四个角,科林斯柱被添加到底座和鼓。在这种情况下,佛塔的侧面有两根阿育王的柱子,每根柱子上都有狮子。狮子象征着狮子的吼声,象征着佛法的传播。

这座犍陀罗佛塔与位于本寺四楼的金佛牙塔稍有相似之处。

佛牙寺龙华院有一件名为“佛陀与佛塔的崇拜”的犍陀罗艺术品,显示佛陀居住在佛塔内部,但它没有显示佛塔作为一个整体。我们相信,这将是对释迦牟尼佛生平故事或佛龛的一个很好的补充。

历史背景

在对佛陀的拟人化描述出现之前,代表佛陀启蒙的标志性符号是最主要的崇拜的对象。空宝座的图像,法轮,佛陀的足印,也许是最持久的,佛塔圣髑盒,都是佛陀形象的象征。

佛塔被认为是一种神圣的物品,因为它装着佛祖的舍利(通常存放在圣髑盒中)。佛龛中的舍利充满了佛陀的力量,经常被重复使用和埋葬在佛塔中。佛塔是在佛陀去世后建造的,它不仅被视为佛陀的象征,也被视为具备真正权利的统治者。

在公元前3世纪,北印度孔雀王朝(公元前272 - 232)的国王阿育王,建造了8座舍利塔(传说),用来供奉分配佛陀涅槃后的舍利佛骨,并以建造八万四千佛舍利塔载入史册(比喻数字),从而使佛教徒可以瞻仰佛陀的光彩。

更多细节见《阿育王和舍利》

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 5
  2. King Asoka and Buddhism, Historical and Literary Studies, edited by Anuradha Seneviratna, Buddhist Publication Society, 1994, ISBN 978-955-24-0065-0
  3. Asokavadana (Legend of King Asoka), in the Divyavadanna (Divine Stories)
  4. Mahavamsa, The Great Chronicle of Ceylon, Wilhelm Geiger, Ph.D., Buddhist Culture Center, Sri Lanka, 1912

参考网站

  1. Ashoka the Great - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. http://sites.asiasociety.org/gandhara/exhibit-sections/narratives-and-architectural-context/#:~:text=In%20Gandhara%20a%20unique%20type,large%2C%20richly%20decorated%20false%20dormers
Sponsorship

A Grey Schist Relief Depicting the Great Departure

描绘大离别的灰色片岩浮雕

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Antique Information

A Grey Schist Relief Depicting the Great Departure

描绘大离别的灰色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗古代地区
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 20H x 27.1 W (cm) 尺寸:高20、宽27.1 (厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 625 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍625号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品。

Provenance:

Private collection, Japan, by 1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

私人收藏,日本,1988年。重要的私人收藏,日本,1990年


Literature 学术:I.Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p.82, fig.146

The Antique was featured in Christie's 'Devotion in Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection'.

The Antique will be featured in our 'Buddhas of the World Museum: Buddha Shakyamuni'.


Description

This proposed relief marks the scene of the departure of Siddhartha from Kapilavastu and the renunciation of his princely life, embarking on his journey towards enlightenment. Yakshas support Kanthaka's hooves so that no noise can be heard by the guards in the early hours of the morning when he departs.

Dressed in his royal attire and headdress, Prince Siddhartha was holding the reins of the horse in his left hand and raising his right hand in Abhaya Mudra (No fear gesture).

Narrative panels such as the present work were often affixed to the cylindrical drums or rectangular plinths of stupas and could thus be read sequentially in the ritual process of circumambulation. Other reliefs were also placed in false gables on the front and the mid-section of a stupa.

The details rendered in this piece is more detailed and significantly larger (measuring 20cm high by 21cm wide) than the one currently displayed at BTRTM.

The BTRTM collection has a small Gandharan narrative relief titled ‘ The Great Departure and Subduing Mara’s Attack’, measuring about 10cm high by 32.4cm wide, which depicts the split-scene where Prince Siddhartha was riding his horse, Kanthaka, and leaving the palace with his charioteer Chandaka. It is currently placed under the life story of Buddha Shakyamuni, below the subtheme of The Great Departure.

Historical Background

At the age of 29 years old, Prince Siddhartha decided to renounce the world in order to find the truth behind all sufferings.

When this final decision was taken after much deliberation, the news of the birth of a son was conveyed to him, while he was about to leave the park. Contrary to expectations, he was not overjoyed, but regarded his first and only offspring as an impediment.

It was the full moon night of Asalha, when Prince Siddhartha left the palace and city silently, riding his horse Kanthaka, with his charioteer Chandaka. They crossed the river Anoma and reached the other bank.1 p262, 2 p30, 3 p11, 4, fig 119, 5 p26, 6 p18, 7 c1, 8 p40

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  8. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

Websites:

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/11lbud.htm

工艺品

A Grey Schist Relief Depicting the Great Departure

描绘大离别的灰色片岩浮雕

Country of Origin: Ancient Region of Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗古代地区
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 20H x 27.1 W (cm) 尺寸:高20、宽27.1 (厘米)
Period: 3rd to 4th Century CE 时期:公元三至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Devotion In Stone: Gandharan Masterpieces from a Private Japanese Collection’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 23rd September 2020, Sale 2870 as lot 625 to BTRTM

购置说明:

在2020年9月23日纽约洛克菲勒广场佳士得“石刻的奉献:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出,2870号竞拍625号拍品,佛牙寺龙华院标得拍卖品。

Provenance:

Private collection, Japan, by 1988. Important private collection, Japan, by 1990

来源:

私人收藏,日本,1988年。重要的私人收藏,日本,1990年


Literature 学术:I.Kurita, Gandharan Art, vol. I, Tokyo, 1988, p.82, fig.146

文艺品在佳士得“石刻的贡品:日本私人收藏的犍陀罗名作”拍卖会上售出

文艺品将会在本寺世界佛像博物馆:释迦牟尼佛亮相


描述

这篇浮雕描述了悉达多太子放弃王子生活,离开迦毗罗卫,开始了他的觉悟之旅。夜叉掩护着犍陟的马蹄声,这样当犍陟在清晨离开的时候守卫们就不会听到任何声音。

悉达多王子身穿王室服装,头戴王冠,左手握着缰绳,右手持施无畏印(无恐惧手势)。

叙事的浮雕正如现在的作品,经常被贴在圆柱形的鼓或长方形的基座上,因此可以在仪式的循环过程中顺序地阅读。其他的浮雕也被放置在佛塔正面和中部的装饰墙里。

这幅作品中渲染的细节比目前在佛牙寺龙华院展出的藏品更细腻,尺寸也更大(高20厘米,宽21厘米)。

佛牙寺龙华院的藏品中有一个名为“伟大的出发和征服马拉的攻击”的犍陀罗叙事浮雕,高约10厘米,宽32.4厘米,描绘了王子悉达多骑着他的马犍陟,和他的车夫车匿离开宫殿的分裂场景。它目前被放在释迦牟尼佛的生平故事中,在大离别的次级主题之下。

历史背景

在29岁的时候,悉达多王子决定放弃这个世界,以便寻找所有苦难背后的真相。

当他再三考虑后做出最后的决定时,他正要离开公园,儿子出生的消息传到了他的耳朵里。与大家预期的不同的是,他并没有太高兴,而是认为他的第一个也是唯一的后代是一种障碍。

那是阿萨哈的满月之夜,悉达多王子静静地离开宫殿和城市,和他的车夫车匿一起骑着他的马“犍陟”。他们渡过安诺马河,来到对岸。1 p262, 2 p30, 3 p11, 4, fig 119, 5 p26, 6 p18, 7 c1, 8 p40

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  8. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

参考网站

  1. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/11lbud.htm

How the Museum is Supported Financially
博物馆是如何获得财政支持的

The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple & Museum follows the traditional Buddhist practice of offering the Dharma (Teachings of the Buddha) to all, and we do not charge any fees for admission to our temple museum. At ‘Buddhas of the World’ Museum, we share the Dharma through the exhibits of the Buddha Shakyamuni, Buddha Maitreya and sacred relics of the Buddha. Your generous donations will help us to acquire, conserve and promote Buddhist artefacts and artworks, for the present and future generations to come.

佛牙寺龙华院遵从传统佛教戒律,广传佛法,我们寺院博物馆不收取任何入门的费用。在世界佛像博物馆,我们通过展出释迦摩尼佛,弥勒佛和佛陀的舍利子来传播佛法。您慷慨的捐赠将会帮助我们收集,保存和推广佛教文物和艺术品,呈现给现在和未来的访客。

Please lend a helping hand by donating to our BTRTS Museum Fund, thank you for your kind donation and may you have bountiful blessings on your Dharma journey!

请伸出您的援手捐款给新加坡佛牙寺博物馆基金,感谢您的善举,祝愿您的佛法之旅万福!