Buddhas of the World Museum
世界佛像博物馆

Introduction

Welcome to the Buddhas of the World Museum! As you arrive at the entrance of Buddhas of the World Museum from the lift lobby, you will be greeted by the magnificent display of the Standing Buddha Shakyamuni from the Gandhara period (2nd to 3rd century), which was acquired from Christie’s.

As you turn to your left, you will see a synopsis of the Buddhas of the World Museum above:

The Buddhas of the World Museum serves as a one-stop portal for visitors worldwide to appreciate the life story of Buddha Shakyamuni, to understand the meaning of His key teachings (Dharma), as well as to introduce the future Buddha, Maitreya, through the artworks and artefacts.

The two main themes of our exhibition are as follow:

[Theme 1] Buddha Shakyamuni

[Theme 2] Buddha Maitreya

Google Virtual Tour of Buddhas of the World Museum

Take a virtual tour of the Buddhas of the World Museum here via Google Maps and you can marvel at the vast array of Buddhist art from 2nd century to 21st century, including artefacts from Gandhara period, Tang dynasty to name a few.

Floor plan of Buddhas of the World Museum

Buddhas of the World Museum - Introduction Buddhas of the World Museum - Gandharan Heritage Buddha Shakyamuni - Introduction Buddha Shakyamuni - The Dream Buddha Shakyamuni - The Birth Buddha Shakyamuni - The Forecast Buddha Shakyamuni - Marriage Buddha Shakyamuni - Life in the Palaces Buddha Shakyamuni - The Four Sights Buddha Shakyamuni - Night Before Departure Buddha Shakyamuni - The Great Departure Buddha Shakyamuni - The Great Renunciation Buddha Shakyamuni - Ascetic Siddhartha and Herd of Sheep Buddha Shakyamuni - Ascetic Life Buddha Shakyamuni - Meditation Under the Bodhi Tree Buddha Shakyamuni - Subduing Mara's Attack Buddha Shakyamuni - The Enlightenment Buddha Shakyamuni - 7 Weeks After Enlightenment Buddha Shakyamuni - The First Sermon Buddha Shakyamuni - Spreading Dharma Buddha Shakyamuni - Twin Miracles of Sravasti Buddha Shakyamuni - Receiving Offerings Buddha Shakyamuni - Daily Schedule Buddha Shakyamuni - Mahaparinirvana

To find out more details about the artworks and artefacts on display, just locate a specific numbered icon on the floor plan above. Please note that object locations may vary, and the museum may be closed to the public without prior notice. Go ahead and click on the icons to explore Buddhas of the World Museum.

介绍

欢迎来到世界佛像博物馆! 当您从电梯玄关来到世界佛像博物馆的入口处,迎接您的是犍陀罗时期(公元2-3世纪)的释迦牟尼佛立像。这尊佛像从佳士得拍卖行购得。

当您往左转,您会看到世界佛像博物馆的简介:

世界佛像博物馆是一站式的博物馆, 来自世界各地的参观者可以在这里鉴赏释迦摩尼佛的生平故事,了解他的主要教义(法),以及通过艺术品和手工艺品认识未来佛,弥勒佛。

我们展览的两个主题如下:

【主题1】释迦牟尼佛

【主题2】弥勒佛

世界佛像博物馆谷歌虚拟导览

通过谷歌地图,您可以对世界博物馆的佛像进行一次虚拟之旅,您会惊叹于从2世纪到21世纪的大量佛教艺术,其中包括犍陀罗时期,唐朝(中国)等的艺术品。

世界佛像博物馆平面图

世界佛像博物馆 —— 介绍 世界佛像博物馆 —— 犍陀罗文化遗产 释迦牟尼佛 —— 介绍 释迦牟尼佛 —— 梦境 释迦牟尼佛 —— 诞生 释迦牟尼佛 —— 预言 释迦牟尼佛 —— 婚姻 释迦牟尼佛 —— 皇宫里的生活 释迦牟尼佛 —— 四个景象 释迦牟尼佛 —— 离宫前夜 释迦牟尼佛 —— 宏大的离别 释迦牟尼佛 —— 宏大的放弃 释迦牟尼佛 —— 苦行的悉达多和羊群 释迦牟尼佛 —— 苦行的生活 释迦牟尼佛 —— 菩提树下冥想 释迦牟尼佛 —— 战胜天魔攻击 释迦牟尼佛 —— 觉悟成道 释迦牟尼佛 —— 觉悟后的第七周 释迦牟尼佛 —— 初转法轮 释迦牟尼佛 —— 传播佛法 释迦牟尼佛 —— 舍卫城的双神迹 释迦牟尼佛 —— 接受供养 释迦牟尼佛 —— 每日行程 释迦牟尼佛 —— 大涅盘

要了解更多关于艺术品和手工艺品的细节,只需在上面的平面图中找到对应的编号图标。请注意,展品的摆放位置可能会更改,本馆也可能在不预先通知公众而关闭。点击图标,探索世界佛像博物馆。

Gandharan Heritage

Introduction

Before you enter the museum, you will be greeted by the impressive display of the Standing Buddha Shakyamuni (as seen in the Buddhas of the World Introduction), which was carved during the Gandhara period (2nd CE to 3rd CE). This is in a special display cabinet with a 3-dimensional projection.

Gandhara is the ancient name of a region in northwest Pakistan, bounded on the west by the Hindu Kush mountain range and to the north by the foothills of the Himalayas. The first known figurative images of the Buddha are thought to have emerged from this region.

Artefact

Standing Buddha Shakyamuni 釋迦牟尼佛(立佛)
Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Gray schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32W × 10D × 81H (cm) 尺寸:高81、宽32、深10(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 20 September 2006, Sale No. 1703 as lot 46 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2006年9月 20日,售号1703,第46批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Adopted by: Tan Sook Eng 捐赠者: 陳琡穎

Description

This is a classic sculpture of a Standing Buddha Shakyamuni, with a chipped Halo behind His head, is standing on top of a plinth, adorned with lotus flowerheads, smiling with a benign expression, while His lowered left hand is holding the tip of His robe. The right hand is broken off and may be raised in Abhaya mudra, which refers to the gesture of fearlessness. From an acquisition standpoint, Standing Buddha Shakyamuni is deemed as rarer than the Buddha Shakyamuni often depicted in a meditation or walking posture in Asia.

This remarkable artefact shares many characteristics of the Greco-Roman art (50 BCE to 400 CE) and Parthian art (247 BCE to 224 CE) – curly whorls of hair, sharp facial features, musculature and voluminous robes with cascading folds – combined with Indian artistic traditions. Gandharan sculptures such as this Standing Buddha Shakyamuni reveals strong Greek influences like the depiction of a ‘man-god’.

Historical Background

Gandhara is the ancient name of the area on the west bank of the Indus river, comprising the Peshawar valley, Swat, Buner and Bajaur.2 p1 The eastern side extend to Taxila, Manikyala and Jhelam river.4 p5 In the 4th century BC, it was occupied by the armies of Alexander the Great.2 p1


Gandhara witnessed the rule of several major powers of antiquity as listed here:

  1. Achaemenids (~600-400 BCE)
  2. Greeks (~326-324 BCE),
  3. Mauryans (~324-185 BCE),
  4. Indo-Greeks (~250-190 BCE),
  5. Scythians (~2nd century to 1st century BCE),
  6. Parthians (~1st century BC to 1st century CE),
  7. Kushans (~1st to 5th century CE),
  8. White Huns (~5th century CE),
  9. Hindu Shahi (~9th to 10th century CE).

The earliest signs of Buddhism in Gandhara can be traced back to two rock-cut edicts commissioned by the Mauryan King Ashoka, during the third century BCE.2 p3

Early Buddhist art depicted the Buddha by His footprints, throne, bodhi tree, stupa as well as the Jataka stories.2 p8

It is to the Greek workmanship of the Bactrian school that Gandhara art owes its origin.4 p13 The earliest image of the Buddha was unearthed at Dharmarajika, late Saka period, first quarter of 1st century AD, portray the Buddha after Enlightenment.2, fig 28

Although its heartland is in present-day northwest Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan, Gandhara art (1st CE to 7th CE) spread throughout Central Asia and reached the Tarim Basin.

As a result, many ideas and images of the Buddha that developed in Gandhara eventually travelled to China, and from there to Korea and Japan. This extraordinary history makes Gandharan art of enduring importance to scholars east and west.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  3. Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt, Gandaran Buddhism, 2006, ISBN 978-0774-1081-5
  4. Dr. A. H. Dani, Gandhara Art In Pakistan, Dept of Films and Publications, Ministry of Information and Media Development, Government of Pakistan

Websites:

  1. Gandhara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Gandhara Civilization - Ancient History Encyclopedia

犍陀罗文化遗产

介绍

在你进入博物馆之前,将有一个令人印象深刻的释迦摩尼佛立像(参见世界佛陀的介绍)迎接您,它是在犍陀罗时期(公元2至3世纪)雕刻的。这是一个带有三维投影的特殊展示柜。

犍陀罗是巴基斯坦西北部一个地区的古老名称,西起兴都库什山脉, 北至喜马拉雅山脚下。第一个已知的佛像一般认为是来自这个地区。

工艺品

Standing Buddha Shakyamuni 釋迦牟尼佛(立佛)
Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Gray schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32W × 10D × 81H (cm) 尺寸:高81、宽32、深10(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 20 September 2006, Sale No. 1703 as lot 46 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2006年9月 20日,售号1703,第46批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Adopted by: Tan Sook Eng 捐赠者: 陳琡穎

描述

这是一尊典型的释迦牟尼佛立像,头部后面有一个削掉的光环,站在基座上,带着莲花头饰,面带微笑,左手低垂,握住长袍的尾端。右手破损,可能是持无畏印,寓意无所畏惧。从获取的角度来看,比起亚洲常见的打坐或行走姿态的释迦牟尼雕像, 站立的佛像更为罕见。

这一非凡的艺术品具有希腊罗马艺术(公元前50年至公元400年)和帕提亚艺术(公元前247年至公元224年)的许多特征:卷曲的头发、鲜明的面部特征、强健的肌肉和宽大的长袍,以及与印度艺术传统相结合的层叠褶皱。这尊 犍驮逻时期的释迦牟尼雕像很大程度上受到了希腊文化对“人神”描述的影响。

历史背景

犍陀罗是印度河西岸地区的古老名称,包括白沙瓦河谷、斯瓦特山谷、布纳尔河和巴祖尔河。2 p1 东部延伸到塔西拉,马尼卡亚拉和耶鲁姆河。4 p5 在公元前4世纪,它被亚历山大大帝的军队所占领 。2 p1


以下所列的是犍陀罗经历过的几个古代强大势力的统治:

  1. 阿切曼尼德(约公元前600-400年)
  2. 希腊人(约公元前326-324年),
  3. 毛利亚人(约公元前324-185年),
  4. 印度-希腊人(约公元前250-190年),
  5. 斯基泰人(约公元前2世纪-1世纪),
  6. 帕提亚人(约公元前1世纪-1世纪),
  7. 库珊人(约公元前1世纪- 5世纪),
  8. 白匈奴人(约公元5世纪)
  9. 印度教夏希人(约公元9世纪- 10世纪)。

佛教在犍陀罗最早的痕迹可以追溯到公元前三世纪孔雀王朝的阿育王所颁布的两道石刻圣旨。2 p3

早期的佛教艺术是通过佛陀的足迹、宝座、菩提树、舍利塔以及《本生谭》来描绘佛陀。2 p8

犍陀罗艺术的起源要追溯到希腊-巴克特里亚统治时期的手工艺,现存最早的犍陀罗艺术佛像于萨卡晚期,公元1世纪的第一季度出土,描绘了佛陀觉悟成佛后的形态。2, fig 28

尽管它的中心地带在今天的巴基斯坦西北部和阿富汗东部,但犍陀罗艺术(公元1至7世纪)传遍了整个中亚,并传到了塔里木盆地。

因此,在犍陀罗发展起来的许多佛陀思想和形象最终都传到了中国,并从中国传到了韩国和日本。这使得犍陀罗艺术文明对中西方学者带来深远的影响。 这段非凡犍陀罗艺术历史对东西方学者产生了深远的影响。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  3. Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt, Gandaran Buddhism, 2006, ISBN 978-0774-1081-5
  4. Dr. A. H. Dani, Gandhara Art In Pakistan, Dept of Films and Publications, Ministry of Information and Media Development, Government of Pakistan

参考网站

  1. Gandhara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Gandhara Civilization - Ancient History Encyclopedia