Buddha Shakyamuni
释迦牟尼佛

Introduction

Artefact

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni 释迦牟尼佛的启示
Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Gilded Wood 材质:镀金木
Dimensions: 30W x 15D x 45H (cm) 尺寸:高45、宽30、深15(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九至二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from Chief Abott Sayadaw Kite Ti, Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery, Inle Lake, Taunggyi District of Shan State, Myanmar

购置说明:

缅甸,茵莱湖,东枝县, Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery任首席大和尚Sayadaw Kite Ti送赠

Description

This is a Burmese sculpture of the Buddha Shakyamuni, seated on a highly-elaborated multi-tier throne. His hands are in Bhumisparsha (Calling-earth-to-bear witness) mudra: His right hand over the knee, fingers together and reaching to touch the ground, while the left hand remains quietly in His lap, palms up. This mudra marks the significance of Buddha calling the earth to be His witness, when He had reached Enlightenment.

His legs are in Vajrasana (Diamond throne) posture, where the legs are tucked in tightly together, crossed at the ankles with right atop left, with the bottoms of both feet facing upward and resting on opposite thighs.

The features of a Burmese Buddhist style are evident on the Buddha Shakyamuni sculpture - triangular face with a broad forehead, eyebrows arched high over narrowly opened eyes, a pointed nose with triangular nostrils, pursed thin lips, large and elongated ears, and a short neck.

This Burmese Buddha Shakyamuni sculpture illustrates some of the prevalent features from the Mahapurusalaksanas (thirty-two features of a Great Man) – long fingers and Ushnisha (protruding crown shaped like a stupa on His head). The sculpture also illustrates elongated ears, which belongs to Anubyanjana (eighty secondary features of a Great Man).

Historical Background

The Historical Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived over 2,500 years ago, and is known as “Buddha Shakyamuni”, which the former means “the Enlightened one” and the latter stands for “Sage of the Shakya clan”. According to chronology, some historians dated Buddha Shakyamuni’s lifetime as 563 to 483 B.C., while other scholars postulate that he may have lived even a century later.

Before His Enlightenment, the historical Buddha was referred by his birthname “Siddhartha Gautama”, whereby “Siddhartha” denotes “he who has attained his goals” and “Gautama” refers to the sacerdotal name of the Shakya family.

The legends that revolved around him hold that both his conception and birth were miraculous. He lived a lavish life from his birth till his young adulthood. Prince Siddhartha’s life took impetus turning point through a spiritual awakening known as the inevitable “Four Sights”, which made him question the truth of suffering (endless cycle of birth, sickness, death, and rebirth) and he was determined to seek the means to end suffering.

At the age of twenty-nine, he left his palace and his family, abandoned his royal privileges and material possessions, in pursuit of being an ascetic. Through his quest as an ascetic, he took guidance from other ascetics and he eventually encountered near death due to the ascetic regimen (starvation). Once he had eaten, he had a realization that physical austerities were not the means to achieve spiritual liberation.

At a place now known as Bodh Gaya (“Place of Enlightenment”), he sat and meditated all night beneath a Bodhi tree. After subduing the forces of the demon Mara, Siddhartha attained Enlightenment and emerged as Buddha, at the age of thirty-five.

The Buddha continued to meditating after His Enlightenment, beneath the tree and then at six other places in the vicinity for 7 weeks. Seven weeks after His Enlightenment, He left his seat under the tree and decided to teach others what He had learned, encouraging people to follow a path He called “The Middle Way”, which is one of balance rather than extremism. He gave His first sermon in a deer park in Sarnath, on the outskirts of the city of Benares.

He soon had many disciples and spent His next forty-five years walking around north-eastern India spreading His Teachings. Although the Buddha presented Himself only as a teacher and not as a god or idol of worship. Traditional accounts relate that He died at the age of eighty in Kushinagara, after ingesting tainted food. His body was cremated, and His remains were distributed among groups of His disciples. These holy relics were enshrined in large hemispherical burial mounds known as Stupas, many of which became important pilgrimage sites we know today.

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  3. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  4. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  5. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  6. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  7. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  8. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  9. Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt, Gandharan Buddhism, 2006, ISBN 978-0774-1081-5
  10. Dr. A. H. Dani, Gandhara Art In Pakistan, Dept of Films and Publications, Ministry of Information and Media Development, Government of Pakistan
  11. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  12. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  13. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  14. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002
  15. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Mathura, India, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and India, 2002
  16. Francine Tissot, Gandhara, 1985, ISBN 4-8087-0605-9 C3071
  17. David Jongeward, Elizabeth Errington, Richard Salomon, Stefan Baums, Gandharan Buddhist Reliquaries, University of Washington Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-295-99236-5

介绍

工艺品

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni 释迦牟尼佛的启示
Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Gilded Wood 材质:镀金木
Dimensions: 30W x 15D x 45H (cm) 尺寸:高45、宽30、深15(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九至二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from Chief Abott Sayadaw Kite Ti, Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery, Inle Lake, Taunggyi District of Shan State, Myanmar

购置说明:

缅甸,茵莱湖,东枝县, Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery任首席大和尚Sayadaw Kite Ti送赠

描述

这是一尊缅甸的释迦牟尼佛雕像,坐在精心布置多层的宝座上。他的手持降魔印(令大地为证),他的右手在右膝上,手指合在一起并触及地面,左手放在腿上,掌心向上。这个手印标志的意义是佛修行觉悟后,号令大地为他见证。

他的腿呈盘腿坐姿 (莲花坐)姿势,腿紧紧的并在一起,交叉在左右脚踝。双脚脚底向上并放在相对的大腿上。

在这尊释迦牟尼佛像上彰显了缅甸佛教风格的特征 —— 三角形的脸,宽阔的前额,高高的眉毛,尖尖的鼻子, 三角形的鼻孔,撅起的薄嘴唇,大而细长的耳朵和短脖子。

这尊缅甸的释迦牟尼佛像呈现了了佛的三十二相(伟人的32个样貌的特点),修长手指,肉髻(头上突出的冠状好像佛塔)。佛像还呈现了细长的耳朵,这是佛的八十种好(伟人的80个次要的特征)。

历史背景

在佛教历史上,佛教的创始人生活在2500多年前,被称为“释迦牟尼佛”,意为“开悟者”,“释迦族的圣人”。根据年表,一些历史学家认为释迦牟尼佛的一生是在公元前563年到公元前483年,而其他学者则认为他可能生活在一个世纪之后。

在佛陀开悟之前,他的出生名是“乔达摩悉达多”,“悉达多”是指“他实现了他的目标”,“乔达摩”是指释迦家族的学名。

围绕着悉达多的传说认为,从他被孕育到出生都是奇迹。 他从出生到青年时期都过着奢华的生活。 悉达多王子的人生从他见到四个景象后,不可避免的发生了转折。他质疑苦难的真相是什么(生,病,死,重生的无尽循环), 他决心去寻找解决痛苦的办法。

在29岁时,他离开了宫殿和家庭,放弃了他的皇室特权和物质财富, 追求成为一个苦行僧。 在他寻求苦行的过程中,他从其他的苦行者那里得到了指导,最终他因为苦行的生活方式(饥饿)而濒临死亡。 在吃到食物之后,意识到身体上的苦行并不是获得精神上解脱的途径。

在现在被称为菩提伽耶的地方,他在一棵菩提树下坐了一整夜。在征服恶魔天魔的力量后,悉达多在三十五岁时获得觉悟成为佛陀。

佛陀开悟后,继续在树下和附近其他六个地方冥想,持续了7个星期。开悟七周后,他离开树下的座位,决定将自己所学传授给他人,鼓励人们走一条他称之为“中间方式”的道路,这是一条平衡而非极端的道路。他的第一次布道是在瓦拉纳西的鹿野苑。

很快他就有了许多弟子,并在接下来的45年里周游印度东北部传播他的教义。尽管佛陀把自己呈现为一个老师,而不是一个神或崇拜的偶像。传统的说法是,他因食用了受污染的食物而死于库什那加拉,享年80岁。他的遗体被火化,并被分发给他的弟子们。这些圣物被供奉在被称为佛塔的大型半球形墓葬冢中,其中许多成为我们今天所知的重要的朝圣地。

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  3. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  4. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  5. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  6. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  7. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  8. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  9. Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt, Gandharan Buddhism, 2006, ISBN 978-0774-1081-5
  10. Dr. A. H. Dani, Gandhara Art In Pakistan, Dept of Films and Publications, Ministry of Information and Media Development, Government of Pakistan
  11. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  12. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  13. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  14. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002
  15. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Mathura, India, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and India, 2002
  16. Francine Tissot, Gandhara, 1985, ISBN 4-8087-0605-9 C3071
  17. David Jongeward, Elizabeth Errington, Richard Salomon, Stefan Baums, Gandharan Buddhist Reliquaries, University of Washington Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-295-99236-5

The Dream


Artefact

Dream of Queen Maya

摩耶王后白象入胎梦

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Green Schist 材质:绿色片岩
Dimensions: 21W x 4.5D x 15H (cm) 尺寸:高15、宽21、深4.5(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 16 September 2014, Sale No. 2870 as lot 216 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2014年9月 16日,售号2870,第216批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

This Gandhara relief depicts the bedchamber of Queen Mahamaya. There are four female attendants and guards surrounding Queen Mahamaya, who is lying asleep on the couch, with her head slightly raised on a pillow. One guard is holding a spear at the head of her bed, while another is holding a flywhisk at the foot. Two attendants wait by her side. There is another young female standing at the palace door at far right, presumably a young lady-in-waiting.

Originally, the elephant would have been visible; however, due to the ravages of time and the elements, the elephant was defaced and hence, not evident in the relief, although you can discern the outline at the top right-hand corner.

Historical Background

Dream of Queen Mahamaya (Queen Maya) tells the miraculous conception of Buddha Shakyamuni’s final rebirth and entrance into this world.

Queen Mahamaya was the chief queen of King Suddhodana of Kapilavastu.3 p68, p73

It was full moon night of Asalha month, 624 BCE that Queen Mahamaya had a vivid dream.2 p14

In the dream, there were four devas (heavenly deities) who carried her away and bathed her in the legendary divine pond Anotatta.2 p14 After bathing her, the devas clothed her in heavenly clothes, anointed her with perfumes, and bedecked her with divine flowers. She was resting in a golden mansion.2 p14, 4 fig 94

Soon after, there appeared a six-tusked elephant descends from heaven, carrying a white lotus in its trunk. It went round her three times and entered her womb through her right side.2 p14, 1 p96

The next day morning, Queen Mahamaya told King Suddhodana about the dream, knowing she had been delivered an important message, as a six-tusked elephant is a symbol of greatness.

The king summoned sixty-four Brahman astrologers to interpret the dream.3 p68 The wise men told the king that the devas have chosen his queen as the mother of the Purest-One and the child will become a very great being.

BTRTM Similar Artefacts

Dream of Queen Maya

摩耶王后白象入胎梦

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼


This gold leaf on copper panel is the initial trial panel of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple. This was crafted by Shanghai Kangyu Enterprise.

The scene of ‘Dream of Queen Maya’ is elaborated with vivid depictions of Queen Mahamaya’s female attendants and guards, against the backdrop of the royal palace.

At the top left-hand corner, situated at the opening of the palace columns, a floating figure of an elephant, with 6 elongated tusks twirled and stretched across the scene towards Queen Mayamaya.

Upon closer inspection, you will see Bodhisattva Shakyamuni seated on a lotus throne atop the elephant, in Anjali mudra where the palms are pressed together, as a sign of respectful greeting.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005

Websites:

  1. Maya (mother_of_the_Buddha) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Life of Buddha: Queen Maha Maya's Dream (Part 1)

梦境


工艺品

Dream of Queen Maya

摩耶王后白象入胎梦

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Green Schist 材质:绿色片岩
Dimensions: 21W x 4.5D x 15H (cm) 尺寸:高15、宽21、深4.5(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 16 September 2014, Sale No. 2870 as lot 216 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2014年9月 16日,售号2870,第216批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

这幅犍陀罗浮雕描绘了摩诃摩耶王后的卧房。摩诃摩耶王后(Queen Mahamaya)正躺在沙发上睡觉,头微抬放在枕头上,身边围绕着四名女侍从和警卫。一个守卫手执长矛站在她的床头,另一个守卫手执拂尘站在她的床尾。两个侍女在皇后两侧侍奉。在最右边的宫殿门口站着另一位年轻的女性,大概是一位年轻的侍女。

原本的雕刻品上,是可以看见大象的; 但由于时间和环境的破坏,大象被损毁了, 因此,在浮雕中并不明显,但你仍可以看到右上角有大象的轮廓。

历史背景

摩诃摩耶王后的梦(摩耶王后)描述了佛陀释迦牟尼最后轮回和进入这个世界的神奇经历。

摩诃摩耶王后是迦毗罗卫国净饭王的正室王后。3 p68, p73

公元前624年阿萨哈月的一个满月之夜,摩诃摩耶王后做了一个生动的梦。2 p14

在梦里,有四个天神把她带走,并在传说中的神池中为她沐浴。2 p14沐浴过后,她穿上天神的衣服,擦拭了香膏,她的床上铺满了神圣的鲜花, 王后在金色的大殿里休息。2 p14, 4 fig 94

不久之后,一只六齿大象从天而降,象鼻带着白莲花。大象围着她绕了三圈,并从右侧进入她的子宫。2 p14, 1 p96

第二天早上,摩诃摩耶王后告诉净饭王她的梦境,这传达着重要的信息,因为六齿的大象是伟大的象征。

国王召集了64位婆罗门占星家的来解释梦境。占星家们告诉国王,天神选择了王后作为“纯正唯一”的母亲,而且孩子将成为一个伟大的生命。

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品

Dream of Queen Maya

摩耶王后白象入胎梦

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼


这幅镀金铜板放置于佛牙寺龙华院四楼的佛牙舍利塔座下方, 描绘了释迦摩尼佛人生八个阶段的其中一个阶段。 该复制品由上海康宇集团制作。

该复制品精心描绘了“摩耶王后白象入胎梦”, 以皇宫为背景,生动的描绘了摩耶王后的各个侍女和守卫。

在复制品右上角,位于宫殿立柱的开口处,有一个大象的浮雕,它有着6只长象牙,延伸向摩耶王后的整个场景。

仔细观察, 你会看到释迦摩尼佛坐在大象的莲花宝座上,双手呈现合十手印,寓意为尊敬的祝福。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005

参考网站

  1. Maya (mother_of_the_Buddha) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Life of Buddha: Queen Maha Maya's Dream (Part 1)

The Birth


Artefact

Birth of the Buddha

佛陀诞生

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32W x 6D x 19H (cm) 尺寸:高19、宽32、深6(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 16 September 2014, Sale No. 2870 as lot 217 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2014年9月 16日,售号2870,第217批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

In early Gandharan art, when it was not yet permissible to represent the body of the Buddha himself, the portrayal of the Birth of the Buddha was depicted through the figure of his mother, Queen Maya, on a lotus (the symbol of miraculous birth), with two Naga elephants pouring the lustral water over her head.

Depicted in the centre of this relief is Queen Maya standing under a Sal tree and grasping one of its branches. On her right are the deities Indra and Brahma, with Indra delivering the infant from the side of his mother, while the rest of her attendants look on in reverence. On the other side of Queen Maya are her lady companions: first, her sister Mahaprajapati, who is supporting her. Then there is a lady carrying a vessel of water. Behind her stood a maid, gazing in astonishment at what is happening. Above them are the celestials, adoring the new-born Prince.

This Birth scene is the subject of many Gandhara sculptures, some more abbreviated than this one, but all conforming to the same pattern.4 fig 99 In typical ancient times, everything connected with death and birth would have been considered unclean. It’s interesting to note that the presence of two important deities, Indra and Brahma, has religious significance. By gracing the Buddha’s birth with their auspicious presence, it indicates that the Buddha’s birth was a non-defiling one.

Historical Background

Queen Maya, the Buddha’s mother, became pregnant, after she dreamt of a magnificent six-tusked elephant entering her womb.

When the time grew near, Queen Maya travelled to her parental home at Devadaha city2 p16 to give birth, as was customary for an expectant mother to deliver at her parents’ home. The entourage passed the bountiful grove of Lumbini along the way. Mesmerised, the Queen asked her courtiers to stop. Leaving the palanquin, she entered the grove.

While enjoying the beautiful flowers and sweet songs of birds, she suddenly felt the pains of labour. The attending women immediately arranged for a covered place under a big Sala tree full of fragrant flowers, in preparation for Queen Maya’s delivery.2 p16 While holding on to a branch of a Sal tree, Queen Maya gave birth to a beautiful prince.4 p44

This was on the auspicious full moon day of Vaisakha, in 566 BC, in Lumbini grove, outside Kapilavastu.3 p8

The Queen has to postpone the journey to Devadaha and returned to the palace.

BTRTM Similar Artefacts

Birth of Prince Siddhartha

悉达多太子诞生

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Description

This gold leaf on copper panel is the initial trial panel of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple. This was crafted by Shanghai Kangyu Enterprise.

The scene of ‘Birth of Prince Siddhartha’ is elaborated with the vivid depictions of Queen Mahamaya’s female companions and deities, rejoicing the delivery of newborn Siddhartha (wrapped in cloth), against the backdrop of the Sal tree.

At the center of the lower plane, you will spot a figure of the newborn Prince on a lotus throne, raising his right index finger at the sky and his left-hand finger pointing downwards to the earth. The presence of such hand gestures alludes to the quote, “I am the foremost in the world, the eldest in the world, the most excellent in the world. This is my last birth. No future births exist for me.”1 p64-65

Ven. Chao Khun Fa ZhaoBBM's Pilgrimage to Lumbini, Nepal


In 2007, the Chief Abbott of Buddha Tooth Relic Temple (Singapore), Venerable Chao Kun Fa Zhao BBM, went on a pilgrimage to Lumbini.

Lumbini,3 p68-72 the birthplace of Prince Siddhartha, is one of the four holy places of Buddhism (the other three being Bodhgaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar in India). It is located at the foothills of the Himalayas in modern Nepal. This garden is full of greens and shady Sal trees. It is owned by the Shakyas and the Kolias clans, and the Buddha’s father was a Shakya of the warrior class.

Many years later, in 249 BCE, when Emperor Ashoka visited Lumbini, it was already a flourishing village. Subsequently, Lumbini remained neglected for centuries, until its Rummendei Asoka Pillar3 p69 was discovered by a German archaeologist in 1895. The Mayadevi Temple and sacred bathing pool Pushkarini are said to be from the time of the Buddha’s Birth.

In 1996, an archaeological dig unearthed a stone, supposedly placed there by Emperor Ashoka, marking the precise birthplace of Prince Siddhartha 2,600 years ago. If authenticated, Lumbini will be a great draw for millions of Buddhist pilgrims, thereby turning it into a flourishing place once again.

Lumbini has been a UNESCO Heritage Site, since 1997.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: Birth of the Prince (Part 1)
  2. 84000 Reading Room | The Play in Full - Lalitavistara
  3. Lumbini Park - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Lumbini the birthplace of Buddhism, Spiritual places of Nepal

诞生


工艺品

Birth of the Buddha

佛陀诞生

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32W x 6D x 19H (cm) 尺寸:高19、宽32、深6(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller Plaza, 16 September 2014, Sale No. 2870 as lot 217 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2014年9月 16日,售号2870,第217批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

在早期的健驮逻艺术中,还不可以直接描绘佛陀的身体,佛陀诞生的描述,是通过描述他的母亲,摩耶王后,在莲花之上(象征奇迹般的诞生),有两只那伽象浇注光泽的圣水为王后沐浴。

在这个浮雕的中心描绘的是摩耶王后站在无忧树下握住其中一根树枝。在她的右边是因陀罗和梵天,因陀罗从王后侧面接生婴儿,而她的其他侍从在一旁恭敬地看着。摩耶王后的女伴站在她的另一边 。先是她的妹妹马哈帕拉贾帕蒂正在帮她,然后有一个妇女人拿着一壶水。王后身后站着一个女仆,惊奇地注视着正在发生的事情。天神在众人头顶,膜拜着新生的王子。

描绘佛陀诞生的犍陀罗雕塑有很多,有些比这个更为简略,但都遵循同样的模式。4 fig 99 在传统的古代,一切与生死相关的事物都被认为是不纯洁的。有趣的是,因陀罗和梵天这两个重要的神灵的存在具有宗教意义。使佛陀的诞生充满吉祥征兆,也表明佛陀诞生是不可玷污的。

历史背景

释迦牟尼的母亲摩耶王后在梦到一头六颗象牙的大象进入她的子宫后就怀孕了。

随着产期临近, 按照当时待产的母亲回娘家生产的习俗,摩耶王后便返娘家天臂城2 p16 待产。当王后与随行人员途经景色优美的兰毗尼园时,王后被美景所吸引便 命令侍卫停下来,她离开轿子,走进树林。

正当王后欣赏鸟语花香时,她忽然感到预产的疼痛,众侍女便立刻将王后带到充满香花的无 忧大树下准备生产。2 p16 王后手扶着无忧树的一根树枝,诞下美丽的王子。4 p44

佛陀诞生于在西元前566年,印度年历二月的吉祥月圆日,在迦毗罗卫城外的兰毗尼园。3 p8

王后不得不推迟前往天臂城店的行程,返回宫殿。

佛牙寺龙华院相似的藏品

Birth of Prince Siddhartha

悉达多王子诞生

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

描述

这块原本尝试制作的镀金铜板藏于佛牙寺龙华院四楼的佛牙舍利塔座下方, 它描绘了释迦摩尼佛人生八个阶段的其中一个阶段。 本制品由上海康宇集团制作。

制品精心描绘了“悉达多王子诞生”,以无忧树为背景,通过对摩耶王后女伴和天神的生动描绘来展现悉达多王子(被布包裹着)的诞生。

在下面的中央,你会发现到新诞生的王子坐在莲花宝座上,右手食指指向天空, 左手食指指向地面, 这种手势的出现预示着“天上天下,唯我独尊。 这将是我最后一次投生,以后将不受轮回再生之苦”。1 p64-65

昭坤法照法师BBM兰毗尼朝圣,尼泊尔


2007年,新加坡佛牙寺龙华院的主持昭坤法照法师BBM前往兰毗尼朝圣。

兰毗尼3 p68-72 是悉达多王子诞生地,是四大佛教圣地之一(其他三个圣地分别是菩提伽耶、鹿野苑和印度的库耶那迦)。兰毗尼位于尼泊尔喜马拉雅山脚,这里的花园满是绿植和无忧树。由释迦族和科里亚斯族所拥有,佛陀的父亲是释迦族首长。

多年以后,在公元前249年,当阿育王访问兰毗尼时,这里已经是一个繁荣的村庄。后来,兰毗尼被忽视了好几个世纪,直到1895年一位德国考古学家发现了立于此的阿育王石柱。3 p69 兰毗尼摩耶王后寺和圣水池 据说是佛陀出生时建造的。

1996年,考古挖掘出了一块石头,据称是阿育王放在那里的,它标志着2600年前悉达多王子的确切出生地。如果得到证实,兰毗尼将吸引数百万的佛教朝圣者,从而使它再次成为一个繁荣的地方。

兰毗尼在1997年,被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: Birth of the Prince (Part 1)
  2. 84000 Reading Room | The Play in Full - Lalitavistara
  3. Lumbini Park - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Lumbini the birthplace of Buddhism, Spiritual places of Nepal

The Forecast


Artefact

Footprint of the Buddha (Buddhapada)

佛足印

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Stone 材质:石雕
Dimensions: 81W x 52D x 10H (cm) 尺寸:高10、宽81、深52(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Description

There was the absence of Buddha Shakyamuni’s image or the emergence of aniconic stage in early Buddhism, and the common symbols of the Buddha then were manifested as: a Bodhi tree, an empty throne, a footprint, a lotus, a riderless horse, six-husked elephant, or an umbrella. 6 p35, 7 p48

The first hint of a human representation in Buddhist symbolism was in the form of the Buddha’s footprint, followed by the full body representations during the Gandharan period. This Buddhapada carved in stone, is a less elaborate representation of the Buddha’s footprint, with few recurring motifs such as the Dharma Wheel, water lilies and small spiral curls of hair.

Historical Background

King Suddhodana had an old teacher, who was known to be very wise. He was called Asita Kaladevala, 2 p18 the Sage. Asita lived in the jungle. While sitting one day, he heard the Devas singing and saw them dancing. "Why are you so happy?" he asked. "Because the most excellent of all beings has been born at Lumbini Park to Queen Mahamaya," replied the Devas. When he heard this, Asita went quickly to see the King and Queen and their new-born son.

The King was very happy to see his wise old teacher again. In the palace, after the Sage was seated, the King brought the Prince before him and said, "Teacher, my son was born only yesterday. Here he is. Please see if his future will be good."

As the King said this, he lowered the infant Prince before the Sage, so that he might examine him properly. However, the baby turned his feet on to the Sage's head. 2 p18 Thus surprised, Asita took hold of the baby's feet and examined them very carefully, finding some marks on them. He got up and said, "This Prince will become a very great teacher in this world." The Sage was very pleased and, putting his palms together, paid due respect to the baby Prince. The King, seeing this, did the same. This was the first salutation of the King. 2 p19, 5 p16

On the fifth day after Siddhartha’s birth, King Suddhodana invited 108 priests to the palace for Prince Siddhartha’s naming ceremony. Seven of the priests who attended the naming ceremony, offered a prophecy that when Prince Siddhartha reached manhood, he would either become a Universal Monarch or a Buddha. The eighth Brahmin, a young priest named Kondanna, predicted accurately that the Prince Siddhartha would embark on a religious path.

In Lalitavistara Sutra, Sage Asita declares that Prince Siddhartha has the Mahapurusalaksanas (Thirty-two Major Marks of Perfection), 1 p129 which are only found on the body of a Universal Monarch but and on a Buddha:

"〔1〕 Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha has a crown protuberance. That, great King, is the first mark of a great being found on Prince Sarvārthasiddha.

〔2〕 Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha’s hair is deep blue like the neck of a peacock or kohl powder, and curls to the right.

〔3〕 His forehead is even.

〔4〕 Great King, at the place between Sarvārthasiddha’s eyebrows, there is a ringlet of hair the color of snow or silver.

〔5〕 Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha’s eyelashes are like those of a bull.

〔6〕 His eyes are of a deep blue color.

〔7〕 He has forty teeth.

〔8〕 He has even teeth.

〔9〕 His teeth are without gaps between them.

〔10〕 His teeth are perfectly white.

〔11〕 Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha has the voice of Brahmā.

〔12〕 His experience of taste is unexcelled.

〔13〕 His tongue is very long and slender.

〔14〕 His jaw is like that of a lion.

〔15〕 His shoulders are well-rounded.

〔16〕 Seven of his body parts are well-rounded.

〔17〕 His chest is broad.

〔18〕 His skin is smooth and golden.

〔19〕 When standing up straight, his hands reach his knees.

〔20〕 His torso is like that of a lion.

〔21〕 Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha’s arm span and height are identical, like the banyan tree.

〔22〕 Each of his hairs grows individually, and their tips curl to the right and upward.

〔23〕 His private parts are well sheathed.

〔24〕 His thighs are well-rounded.

〔25〕 His calves are like those of the black antelope, the King of deer.

〔26〕 His fingers are long.

〔27〕 His heels are broad.

〔28〕 His arches are high.

〔29〕 His palms and the soles of his feet are soft.

〔30〕 His fingers and toes are webbed.

〔31〕 Great King, on the palms of his long-fingered hands and on the soles of his long-toed feet, there are beautiful thousand-spoked wheels with both center and rim.

〔32〕 Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha has even and well-placed feet."

The sutra continues with Asita’s description of the Anubyanjana (Eighty Secondary Marks of a Great Man), 1 p130 all of which were evident on Prince Siddhartha’s body:

〔1〕 Prince Sarvārthasiddha’s fingernails are rounded, 〔2〕 copper colored, and 〔3〕 glossy.

〔4〕 His fingers and toes are rounded, 〔5〕 long, and 〔6〕 well proportioned.

〔7〕 His veins are not visible.

〔8〕 His anklebones are not visible.

〔9〕 His joints are not visible.

〔10〕 His feet are even, rather than uneven.

〔11〕 His heels are broad.

Great King, 〔12〕 Prince Sarvārthasiddha has marKings on his hands that are even, 〔13〕 clear, 〔14〕 deep, 〔15〕 straight, 〔16〕 and well arranged.

〔17〕 His lips are red like the bimba fruit.

〔18〕 His voice is not loud.

〔19〕 His tongue is supple, soft, and copper colored.

〔20〕 His voice is melodious like the trumpeting of an elephant, or the roll of thunder. Moreover, 〔21〕 his arms are long.

〔22〕 He is excellently clean.

〔23〕 His body is soft.

〔24〕 His body is not subject to fear or hesitancy.

〔25〕 His body is well proportioned, 〔26〕 heroic, 〔27〕 beautiful, and 〔28〕 well composed.

〔29〕 His kneecaps are broad, large, and well-developed.

Great King, 〔30〕 Prince Sarvārthasiddha’s body is rounded, 〔31〕 very smooth, 〔32〕 straight, and 〔33〕 well structured.

〔34〕 His navel is deep, 〔35〕 not crooked, and 〔36〕 tapering.

〔37〕 Like a Sage, he is very pure in his conduct.

〔38〕 He is exceedingly attractive, 〔39〕 of pure appearance, and 〔40〕 shines with a light that dispels all darkness.

Great King, 〔41〕 Prince Sarvārthasiddha moves with the serene gait of an elephant, 〔42〕 the stride of a lion, 〔43〕 the step of a great bull, 〔44〕 the swoop of a swan.

〔45〕 His steps always make beautiful circles to the right.

〔46〕 His sides are rounded, 〔47〕 well proportioned, and 〔48〕 straight.

〔49〕 His waist is slight like the curve of a bow.

〔50〕 His body is free from any blemishes or dark spots.

Great King, 〔51〕 Prince Sarvārthasiddha has rounded canines.

〔52〕 His canines are sharp and well-spaced.

〔53〕 His nose is elegantly high.

〔54〕 His eyes are clear, 〔55〕 stainless, 〔56〕 warm, 〔57〕 elongated, 〔58〕 large, and 〔59〕 resemble blue lotuses.

Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha has 〔60〕 even eyebrows that are 〔61〕 thick, 〔62〕 dark, 〔63〕 continuous, and 〔64〕 tapered.

〔65〕 His cheeks are plump, 〔66〕 even, 〔67〕 unblemished, 〔68〕 and free from the flush of aggression.

〔69〕 His sense organs are clearly apparent.

Great King, 〔70〕 Prince Sarvārthasiddha has a perfect tuft of hair between his brows.

〔71〕 His face and forehead are proportional.

〔72〕 His head is large.

〔73〕 His hair is black, 〔74〕 even, 〔75〕 fragrant, 〔76〕 soft, 〔77〕 well kempt, 〔78〕 well arranged, and 〔79〕 curly.

Great King, 〔80〕 Prince Sarvārthasiddha has hair that curls into the forms of the endless knot, the mark of auspiciousness, the mark of eternal happiness, and the mark of prosperity.

Great King, Prince Sarvārthasiddha has all of these eighty marks.

In relation to Buddha Shakyamuni’s foot as an important factor in the forecast, the foot of the Buddha continues to hold great importance till today as a highly revered symbol of the Buddha, in the form of a footprint.

The Footprints of the Buddha are classified into three different forms: an image of the soles of the Buddha’s feet, an isolated object for worship, and as painted on the ceiling of the religious temples. Such representations of the Footprints of the Buddha are made from numerous materials such as stone and copper to name a few, which served as sacred objects of veneration and worship.

BTRTM Similar Artefacts

Footprint of the Buddha (Buddhapada)

佛足印

Country of Origin: Sri Lanka 来源地:斯里兰卡
Material: Copper 材质:铜塑
Dimensions: 11W x 101D x 183H (cm) 尺寸:高183、宽11、深101(厘米)
Period: 1993 时期:1993年
Notes:

Gift from Venerable Galboda Gnanissara, Chief Incumbent, Gangaramaya Temple, Colombo, Sri Lanka

说明:

斯里兰卡、科伦坡、Gangaramaya Temple现任首席长老Galboda Gnanissara送赠

Description

Since the Anuradhapura period (3rd BCE to 10th CE) in Sri Lanka, there were many Buddha footprints carved in stone slabs.

The footprints are usually depicted with toes of equal length and with a Dharmachakra, or Dharma wheel, in the centre.

Upon closer inspection of this artefact above, you will be able to notice 108 auspicious signs on the copper foiling of Buddha’s Footprint, by which they can be recognized as extensive motifs, like good omens, horoscope animals and royal insignia.

The Footprint is also one of the Mahapurusalaksanas (thirty-two major marks of Perfection) that identifies the Buddha as an incomparable person, who carries these 112 auspicious signs, with the thousand-spoke wheel on the soles. As a symbol of the Buddha's presence, Buddhapada are highly revered in all Buddhist countries.

The Buddha footprints have been recreated by devoted artists and the practice of making Buddha footprints continues to spread from India throughout Asia: China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Japan and Sri Lanka.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  5. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  6. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002
  7. 7. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Mathura, India, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and India, 2002

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Naming Ceremony (Part 1)
  2. 84000 Reading Room | The Play in Full - Lalitavistara
  3. Kapilavastu (ancient city) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

预言


工艺品

Footprint of the Buddha (Buddhapada)

佛足印

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Stone 材质:石雕
Dimensions: 81W x 52D x 10H (cm) 尺寸:高10、宽81、深52(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

描述

在早期佛教中,释迦牟尼佛是没有具体的形象,或处于无佛像时代,在当时,佛陀的常见象征表现为:一棵菩提树、一个空的宝座、一个脚印、一朵莲花、一匹无人骑乘的马、一头六颗牙的象或一把伞。 6 p35, 7 p48

佛足印是人们使用的第一个代表佛陀的象征。 随后在犍陀罗时期才出现了佛陀全身的形象。这尊刻在石头上的佛陀,是佛陀足印的一种粗旷表现,有简单的重复图案,如佛轮、睡莲和成螺旋状的卷发。

历史背景

净饭王有一位年长的老师,以富有智慧闻名。这位老师人称阿私驼·卡拉代瓦拉圣人。2 p18 阿私陀住在丛林里。有一天,他打坐时,听到天神在唱歌和舞蹈。他便问:“您们为何如此高兴?”。天神回答说:“因为摩耶王后在蓝毗尼园诞下了最优秀的生命。”听到这个消息,阿私陀立刻去拜见国王和王后,还有他们刚出生的儿子。

国王很高兴再次见到他睿智的老师。在王宫里,智者坐好后,国王把王子带到他面前说:“老师,我的儿子昨天刚出生,这就是他,请看看他的未来是否会很好。”

国王说着,就把年幼的王子抱到圣人面前,让他好好地审视一番。然而,婴儿把他的脚转放到智者的头上。2 p18就这样,阿私陀吃惊地拿起婴儿的脚,非常仔细地检查,发现脚上有一些纹迹。他起身说:“这个王子将成为这个世界上非常伟大的导师。”智者非常高兴,双手合十,对小王子表示了应有的尊敬。国王见了,也照着做了。这是国王的第一次敬礼。 2 p19, 5 p16

悉达多出生后的第五天,净饭王邀请了108位僧人到王宫参加悉达多王子的命名仪式。参加命名仪式的七名僧人预言,悉达多王子成年后,或成为转轮圣王,或成为佛陀。第八个婆罗门是一个名叫康丹那的年轻僧人,他准确地预言悉达多王子将走上宗教道路。

在《普曜经》中,智者阿私陀宣称悉达多王子拥有只在转轮圣王和佛陀身上才有的“大圆满”之相(三十二相): 1 p129

〔1〕 顶上肉髻相。

〔2〕 身毛上靡相。

〔3〕 前额宽平相。

〔4〕 眉间白豪相。

〔5〕 睫如牛王相。

〔6〕 目色绀青相。

〔7〕 四十牙齿相。

〔8〕 牙齿齐平相。

〔9〕 牙齿紧密相。

〔10〕 牙齿鲜白相。

〔11〕 声如梵王相。

〔12〕 常得上味相。

〔13〕 舌广而长相。

〔14〕 两颊隆满相。

〔15〕 两肩圆满相。

〔16〕 七处隆满相。

〔17〕 胸宽福满相。

〔18〕 身色金黄相。

〔19〕 垂手过膝相。

〔20〕 上身如狮相。

〔21〕 身广长等相。

〔22〕 一孔一毛相。

〔23〕 象马阴藏象。

〔24〕 腨如鹿王相。

〔25〕 身型端直相。

〔26〕 手指细长相。

〔27〕 足根广平相。

〔28〕 足趺高满相。

〔29〕 手足柔软相。

〔30〕 指间缦网相。

〔31〕 足下轮形相。

〔32〕 足下平满相。

经书中还有阿私陀所描述的八十种好(八十种小相),1 p130 所有这些都明显的体现在悉达多王子的身上:

〔1〕 指甲圆, 〔2〕 赤铜色, and 〔3〕 润泽。

〔4〕 手足之指圆 〔5〕 纤长, 〔6〕 匀称。

〔7〕 筋骨隐而不现。

〔8〕 两踝俱隐。

〔9〕 关节不显。

〔10〕 足下安平。

〔11〕 足脚跟宽。

〔12〕 手文圆满, 〔13〕 清晰, 〔14〕 手纹深长, 〔15〕 明直, 〔16〕 手文不断。

〔17〕 唇色光润丹晖。如频婆果上下相称。

〔18〕 声音威远清澈。

〔19〕 舌相软薄广长。如赤铜色。

〔20〕 发声威震深远。如象王吼明朗清彻, 〔21〕 臂长。

〔22〕 身清洁。

〔23〕 身柔软。

〔24〕 身容敦肃无畏。

〔25〕 身满足, 〔26〕 自持不逶迤, 〔27〕 容仪备足, 〔28〕 身体匀称。

〔29〕 膝轮圆满。

〔30〕 身份坚固充实逾那罗延, 〔31〕 非常光滑, 〔32〕 身体长大端直, 〔33〕 身支势力殊胜无与等者。

〔34〕 脐深右旋。 〔35〕 腹不显, 〔36〕 细腹。

〔37〕 身相犹如仙王,周匝端严光净。

〔38〕 他极富魅力, 〔39〕 纯洁的外表,而 〔40〕 光照身而行。

〔41〕 行步直进,威仪和穆如龙象王。 〔42〕 行步威容齐肃如狮子王。 〔43〕 行步安平犹如牛王。 〔44〕 进止仪雅宛如鹅王。

〔45〕 肢节均匀圆妙。

〔46〕 他的侧面呈圆形, 〔47〕 匀称,且 〔48〕 直。

〔49〕 腰圆如弓。

〔50〕 皮肤远离疥癣。亦无黡点疣赘等过。

〔51〕 牙圆白光洁锋利。

〔52〕 齿方整鲜白。

〔53〕 鼻高且直,其孔不现。

〔54〕 眼净青白分明, 〔55〕 不锈, 〔56〕 温暖, 〔57〕 眼相修广。 〔58〕 大和 〔59〕 如青莲花。

〔60〕 眼睫上下齐整, 〔61〕 浓密, 〔62〕 而不白, 〔63〕 双眉绮靡顺次, 〔64〕 眉高显形如初月。

〔65〕 面如秋满月, 〔66〕 颜貌舒泰, 〔67〕 面貌光泽无有颦蹙, 〔68〕 面门常出最上殊胜香。

〔69〕 两耳齐平,离众过失。

〔70〕 眉间完美首发。

〔71〕 相周圆妙好。

〔72〕 顶骨坚实圆满。

〔73〕 发修长绀青,密而不白, 〔74〕 发齐不交杂, 〔75〕 发香洁细润, 〔76〕 柔软, 〔77〕 发不断落, 〔78〕 齐整无乱亦不交杂 〔79〕 卷曲旋转。

〔80〕 悉达多王子的头发卷曲成无休止的结,吉祥,永恒的幸福和繁荣的迹象。

伟大的王,悉达多王子拥有这八十种相貌。

以释迦摩尼佛的脚作为占相的一个重要象征,直到今天,佛足印仍然是非常重要和崇高的佛陀象征。

佛足印有三种经典的表现方式:单纯的佛足图像,供奉的独立物体以及在寺庙天花板所绘制的图像,这种体现佛足印的物品是由许多种材料制成,举几个例子如被供奉的圣物是由石和铜所制成。

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品

Footprint of the Buddha (Buddhapada)

佛足印

Country of Origin: Sri Lanka 来源地:斯里兰卡
Material: Copper 材质:铜塑
Dimensions: 11W x 101D x 183H (cm) 尺寸:高183、宽11、深101(厘米)
Period: 1993 时期:1993年
Notes:

Gift from Venerable Galboda Gnanissara, Chief Incumbent, Gangaramaya Temple, Colombo, Sri Lanka

说明:

斯里兰卡、科伦坡、Gangaramaya Temple现任首席长老Galboda Gnanissara送赠

描述

自从斯里兰卡的阿努拉德普勒时代(公元前3世纪至公元十世纪)以来,有很多佛足印石雕。

佛足印通常以等长脚趾的脚与达摩之轮,或 佛法轮在正中心来进行描绘。

仔细查看上面的这个人工制品, 您会发现在佛足印的铜箔上有108个吉祥的标志, 这些标志有广泛的意思,比如吉祥的兆头,生肖动物和皇家徽标。

足印也是三十二相之一,定义佛陀是至尊之人, 他携带者112个吉祥标志,足底有千轮。 作为佛的象征,佛足印在所有佛教国家都有很崇高的地位。

这些佛足印是由虔诚的艺术家重新创造的,制作佛足印的做法从印度传播到整个亚洲:中国、缅甸、泰国、柬埔寨、老挝、日本和斯里兰卡。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  5. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  6. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002
  7. 7. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Mathura, India, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and India, 2002

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Naming Ceremony (Part 1)
  2. 84000 Reading Room | The Play in Full - Lalitavistara
  3. Kapilavastu (ancient city) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marriage


Historical Background

When the Prince was sixteen years old, King Suddhodana wanted to find a suitable princess for him to marry.1 p184, 2 p25, 7 p17 When he announced his desire to the befitting royal families, they refused to respond, saying, “Prince Siddhartha, although a very handsome prince, has had no proper education.”

In order to dispel the doubts of the royal families, the King arranged a date for them to come and observe the Prince’s learning. After the display of skills, everyone in the gathering was pleased with his abilities.1 p189 They all agreed to send their daughters of his age to a ceremony of choice, where the Prince can choose his future Queen.

The day that the royal princesses were all gathered, and the Prince had the opportunity of being introduced to them, the beautiful daughter of King Suppabuddha of the Koliya clan, won his heart. Her name was Yasodhara, She was also known as Bhaddakaccana, Bimba and Rahulamata.2 p26, 1 p197, 3 p11

Both royal families were very delighted and made them united in marriage, at a grand festive wedding. A harem of thousands of young pretty princesses was also arranged to keep the Prince happy. The Prince and the Princess had a very happy married life for thirteen years.2 p26

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: Prince Siddhartha's Wife (Part 1)

婚姻


历史背景

当王子十六岁的时候,净饭王想找一个适合公主与他结婚。1 p184, 2 p25, 7 p17当他向符合他意向的王室成员宣布他的愿望时,他们拒绝了,说:“悉达多王子虽然很英俊,却没有受过适当的教育。

为了打消那些皇室家族的疑虑,国王安排一个日子让他们来观察王子的学习。在展示了自己的技能之后,聚会上的每个人都对他的能力感到满意。1 p189他们都同意把与王子同龄的女儿送来参加相亲会,王子可以选择他未来的王后。

这一天,所有的皇室公主们聚集一堂,王子得此机会被介绍给了众位公主。 美丽的天臂城主善觉王的女儿赢得了王子的心。 她的名字叫耶输陀罗,也被叫做Bhaddakaccana,Bimba和Rahulamata。2 p26, 1 p197, 3 p11

两个皇室都非常高兴, 并让他们在一个盛大的节日婚礼上结婚。 一个由上千个年轻美丽的公主组成的后宫,也被安排来取悦王子。 王子和公主在一起幸福的生活了13年。2 p26

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: Prince Siddhartha's Wife (Part 1)

Life in the Palaces


Artefact

Pensive Prince Siddhartha

沉思的悉达多太子

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Green Schist 材质:绿色片岩
Dimensions: 18W × 5.5D × 14H (cm) 尺寸:高14、宽18、深5.5(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 12 September 2012, Sale No. 2578 as lot 502 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒, 2012年9月 12日,售号2578,第502批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

This alto-relievo (due to its diminutive size) was likely to be part of a larger piece. It is divided into three sections, which are separated by two Corinthian columns, indicating that the narrative takes place spatially in the same location.

The first section on the left shows a female figure facing the Prince in a stationary position. She stands with her left leg crossed in front of her right leg. Her right hand is placed on her abdomen and her left hand supports her left cheek. Her head is slightly tilted to her left and she is scantily dressed, in only a skirt and a simple necklace.

In the middle sections, Prince Siddhartha is depicted in the palace, seated in Lalitasana (‘royal ease’ posture) on a cushioned bench, with his right leg on a raised pedestal, and his raised left leg resting on his right thigh. His right hand supports his right cheek, with his head slightly tilted, while his left hand touches his left ankle. Wearing a shawl covering his left shoulder and a dhoti, his hair is tied up in a top knot and he appears staring straight ahead in a pensive mood.

The scene on the right shows the side view of a figure (likely to be female; first from the left) holding onto the column and looking at the Prince. Gazing slightly upwards towards the Prince, she is half-naked, wearing only a dhoti.

Behind her is a large Corinthian pillar where two smaller-sized figures stood: the left figure appears to be male and fully naked. He uses a clarinet-like, single-reed instrument, while the figure on the right has both hands beating a drum in front, at the level of his groin. It is unclear if these two figures are musicians or decorations on the column itself.

Above the columns on the balustrade can be seen three spectators (or guards) gazing downwards (only their heads and shoulders are visible).

The presence of the musicians and the two flanking female figures, coupled with the express by the Prince, indicates that this is a depiction of the Antahpura (royal harem) scene, when the Prince was seduced by the female attendants in his palace, before his Renunciation.

Historical Background

It was foretold that the boy would be either a great ruler or a great spiritual teacher. King Suddhodana preferred the first outcome and prepared Prince Siddhartha accordingly.

King Suddhodana was wary that any contact with unpleasantness might prompt Siddhartha to seek a life of renunciation, as a religious teacher, and not wanting to lose his son to such a future, protected him from vicissitudes.

With the hopes of stopping the Prince from thinking about leaving home, his councillors advised to provide Prince Siddharta with holistic education, by giving him lessons in arithmetic, astrology, archery, craftmanship, writing, boxing, horseback riding, and other feats of physical activities. His reputed teacher called Visvamitra1 p167, was called to the palace to equip him with diverse knowledge, arts and skills, expected of a warrior prince.3 p25

There were three palaces built for him to live during the 3 seasons:1 p235

  • Ramya, for winter;
  • Suramya, for summer; and
  • Subha, for rainy season.

These were fitted with luxuries and highly comfortable, with various entertainers.2 p23, 4 p354

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  4. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  5. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

皇宫里的生活


工艺品

Pensive Prince Siddhartha

沉思的悉达多太子

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:犍陀罗
Material: Green Schist 材质:绿色片岩
Dimensions: 18W × 5.5D × 14H (cm) 尺寸:高14、宽18、深5.5(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 12 September 2012, Sale No. 2578 as lot 502 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 ‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒, 2012年9月 12日,售号2578,第502批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

这片高凸浮雕(由于其尺寸较小)很可能是一幅更大作品的其中一部分。它被分成三个场景,这些场景被两个科林斯式的圆柱分开,表明分别的叙事是发生在同一个位置。

左边的第一场景展示了一个面对王子的女性人物。她处在固定位置,左腿交叉放在右腿前面。她的右手放在腹部,左手托着左脸颊。她的头微微向左倾斜,穿着暴露,只穿了一条裙子和戴了一条简单的项链。

在中间的部分,描绘悉达多王子在宫殿里,以拉利塔萨那姿态(“王室放松”姿势)坐软垫长椅上,右腿抬起踩在底座上,抬起的左腿放在右腿上。他的右手支撑着他的右脸颊,他的头稍微倾斜,而他的左手触摸他的左脚踝。他左肩上披着披巾和一条裹裙,头上扎着发髻,凝视着正前方,一副若有所思的样子。

右边的场景描绘出一个人物的侧视图(可能是左边第一个场景所提到的女性)扶着柱子,看着王子。她微微向上凝视着王子,半裸着,只穿了一条裹裙。

她身后是一根巨大的科林斯式石柱,柱上站着两个较小的人:左边的人物似乎是男性,全身赤裸。他使用一种单簧管状的单簧管乐器,而右边的人则用双手敲打挂在腹股沟高度的鼓,目前还不清楚这两个人物是乐师还是柱子上的装饰图案。

在柱子的上方的栏杆,可以看到三个观众(或警卫)向下凝视(只能看到他们的头和肩膀)。

乐师和他两侧女性人物的出现,加上王子的表情,表明这是对安塔普勒(皇家后宫)场景的描绘,在王子禁欲成佛前被宫中女侍的诱惑。

历史背景

据说这个男孩将会是一个伟大的统治者或者是一个伟大的精神导师。净饭王更喜欢前者, 并且按照前者的标准来培养悉达多王子。

净饭王担心,任何不愉快的事情都可能促使悉达多王子寻求一种超然的生活成为一名宗教导师,他不想让儿子拥有这样的未来而失去自己的儿子,净饭王要保护他免受沦丧。

为了避免王子产生离家的念头,他的谋臣们建议为悉达多王子提供全面的教育,给他上算术、占星术、射箭、工艺、写作、拳击、骑马和其他体育活动的课程。他的老师名叫毗奢蜜多罗1 p167,毗奢蜜多罗被召入皇宫,教导他丰富的知识、艺术和技能,希望他成为一个战士的王子。3 p25

有三幢宫殿专门为他而建,供他在三个季节里居住: 1 p235

  • 冬宫,冬天居住;
  • 夏宫,夏天居住;和
  • 春宫,雨季居住。

这些宫殿装修豪华,非常舒适,有各种各样的演艺人员。2 p23, 4 p354

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  4. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  5. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

The Four Sights


Artefact

Prince Siddhartha Leaves the Palace

悉达多太子出游图

Country of Origin: Cambodia 来源地:柬埔寨
Material: Terracotta 材质:赤陶土
Dimensions: 42W × 11D × 68H (cm) 尺寸:高68、宽42、深11(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Description

This Khmer bas relief panel depicts a scene of Prince Siddhartha embarking on a trip out of the palace, against the backdrop of the pleasure forest. The King Suddhodana proclaimed that the Prince would ride out and decreed that all the roads and towns were to look perfect and smell wonderful.

However, the inevitable Four Sights led Prince Siddhartha to realise that the pursuit of material wealth and pleasures are meaningless.

In Khmer Buddhist Art, the depiction of Prince Siddhartha is presumed to be of likeness to the King Jayavarman VII. He is seen holding a flower-like object, while sitting on a beautiful chariot, sheltered with five royal parasols, symbolising his royal status and the veil of Prince Siddhartha from the truth of human suffering.

The people kneeling in front of the chariot could be his attendants or commoners who are welcoming and paying respect to him. The headgears and attire of the figures are reflective of the typical Khmer Buddhist art style. Similar depictions can also be seen on typical bas reliefs originating from Angkor Wat.

Historical Background

One glorious day, as he went out of the palace to the pleasure park to see the world outside, he came in direct contact with the stark realities of life through the Four Sights.1 p236 Within the narrow confines of the palace, he witnessed the glossy side of life, but the ugly side - the suffering of mankind - was deliberately concealed from him.

Prince Siddhartha’s account of the Four Sights is as follow:2 p27, 3 p11, 4 p18, 5 c1

  1. The First Sight: Old Age

    He saw a white-haired, shrivelled man dressed in rags. He had never seen old people before. His charioteer, Channa, explained that he was an old man and that aging was inevitable.

  2. The Second Sight: Sickness

    On another trip, he saw a man lying on the ground, moaning in pain. He rushed over to the man’s side and tried to relieve him of his pain. Channa explained that the man was sick and that the human body is susceptible to sickness.

  3. The Third Sight: Death

    The next sight was that of a funeral procession of a dead man. Channa then told him the final truth of life - that no one can escape death, and everyone shall die one day.

  4. The Fourth Sight: Ascetic

    Finally, he met with an ascetic who told him that he had abandoned world desires to attain peace of mind.

The Four Sights had a significant influence on Prince Siddhartha’s view of life, which resulted in a spiritual awakening to abandon the pursuit of material luxuries and fleeting pleasures.

He decided to relinquish his wealth and royal privileges, become an ascetic himself and seek a solution to human suffering. Knowing his family would not agree with his decision, he arranged to leave the palace secretly that night.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: Old Age
  2. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: Sickness
  3. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: Death
  4. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: A Monk

四个景象


工艺品

Prince Siddhartha Leaves the Palace

悉达多太子出游图

Country of Origin: Cambodia 来源地:柬埔寨
Material: Terracotta 材质:赤陶土
Dimensions: 42W × 11D × 68H (cm) 尺寸:高68、宽42、深11(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

描述

这幅高棉(柬埔寨)浅浮雕描绘了悉达多王子踏上了离开宫殿的旅程,映衬的背景是让人愉快感觉的森林。净饭王宣布王子将会骑马外出,并下令所有沿途的道路和城镇都要看起来完美和充满愉悦。

然而,四个不可避免的景象使悉达多王子意识到,追求物质财富和享乐是毫无意义的。

在高棉(柬埔寨)的佛教艺术中,对悉达多王子的描绘被认为与国王阇耶跋摩七世相似。他手持一件像花一样的器物,坐在一辆漂亮插着五把皇家遮阳伞的车上,寓意着他的皇室身份,悉达多王子的面纱象征着不让他了解人类苦难的真相。

车前跪着的人有可能是他的随从或是迎接和拜见他的平民。 头饰和服装的细节是典型高棉(柬埔寨)佛教艺术的风格。 在在吴哥窟也能看到类似风格的浮雕作品。

历史背景

在辉煌的一天, 悉达多王子走出皇宫到游乐公园看到外面的世界。1 p236他看到了四个景象直接接触到了赤裸裸的现实生活。在他狭小封闭的宫殿里,他所看到的是生命美好的一面,但是丑陋的一面— 人类的苦难,却对他隐瞒。

悉达多王子的四个景象如下:2 p27, 3 p11, 4 p18, 5 c1

  1. 第一景:老

    他看见一个白发苍苍,萎缩又衣衫褴褛的人。他以前从未见过老人。他的车夫,车匿解释说,他是一个老人,衰老是不可避免的。

  2. 第二景:病

    在另一次行程中,他看到一个男人躺在地上,痛苦地呻吟着。他冲到老人身边,试图减轻他的痛苦。车匿解释说,这是个人病了,人是容易染病的。

  3. 第三景:死

    接着看到的是一个死人的送葬队伍。车匿随即告诉他生命最后的真理——没有人能逃脱死亡,每个人都终将死去。

  4. 第四景:苦

    最后,他遇到了一个苦行僧,苦行僧告诉他说,是为了获得内心的平静才放弃了世俗的欲望。

这四种景象对悉达多王子的人生观产生了重大影响,使他在精神上觉醒,放弃了对物质奢华和短暂享乐的追求。

他决定放弃他的财富和皇室特权,成为一名苦行僧,为人类的苦难寻求解决之道。他知道家人不会同意他的决定,于是他在晚上偷偷离开了皇宫。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: Old Age
  2. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: Sickness
  3. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: Death
  4. Life of Buddha: The Four Sights: A Monk

Night Before The Great Departure

BTRTM Similar Artefacts

Night Before The Great Departure

悉达多太子诞生

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Description

This gold leaf on copper panel is the initial trial panel of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple. This was crafted by Shanghai Kangyu Enterprise.

The scene of ‘Life in the Palace’ is elaborated with the vivid depictions of Prince Siddhartha in the center foreground, with his right leg folded atop a cushion, while his right arm is bent towards his torso and his left arm bent with palm exposed, surrounded by his servants and entertainers. At the back of Prince Siddhartha lies Queen Yasodhara in a reclining position.

Historical Background

At midnight, the Prince awoke to see all the dancing girls sleeping, a very unpleasant sight. The Prince found everything no more pleasing and satisfying.

The Prince then thought it was time to leave the palace to become an ascetic to find the solution to Samsara.2 p29,30, 6 p18, 7 c1, 8 p38

The Four Sights had a significant influence on Prince Siddhartha’s view of life, which resulted in a spiritual awakening to abandon the pursuit of material luxuries and fleeting pleasures.

He decided to relinquish his wealth and royal privileges, become an ascetic himself and seek a solution to human suffering. Knowing his family would not agree with his decision, he arranged to leave the palace secretly that night.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  4. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  5. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  8. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Prince Leaves Home

离宫前夜

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品

Night Before The Great Departure

悉达多太子诞生

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

描述

这幅镀金铜板放置于佛牙寺龙华院四楼的佛牙舍利塔座下方, 描绘了释迦摩尼佛人生八个阶段的其中一个阶段。 该复制品由上海康宇集团制作。

这个“皇宫生活”的场景生动描述悉达多王子在中央前景的位置,他的右腿弯踏在垫子上,右臂向身体弯曲,左臂弯曲并伸出手掌,仆人和演艺人员围绕着他。 在悉达多王子的后面 躺着他的皇后耶输陀罗。

历史背景

午夜时分,王子醒后看到所有跳舞的女孩们都睡着了,这一幕令他非常不快。王子发现一切都不再让他欢愉和满意。

王子认为是时候离开皇宫,成为一名苦行僧以寻找轮回的答案。2 p29,30, 6 p18, 7 c1, 8 p38

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  4. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  5. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  8. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Prince Leaves Home

The Great Departure


Artefact

The Great Departure and Subduing Mara’s Attack

弃皇离宫及天魔攻击

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32.4W x 4D x 10H (cm) 尺寸:高10、宽32.4、深4(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得“印度和东南亚艺术品”拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2015年3月18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

Sculpted in this Gandharan relief was the life story of Buddha Shakyamuni, depicted in two scenes framed, and separated by Corinthian pilasters.

These two scenes are common themes revolving around the Life of the Buddha:

  1. The Great Departure (on the right side), where Prince Siddhartha left his kingdom and renounced the worldly life: and
  2. Subduing Mara’s Attack (on the left side), where Mara the Evil One, with his demon armies attacked the ascetic Siddhartha.

The right frame (which depicts the scene of ‘The Great Departure’, Prince Siddhartha was riding his horse, Kanthaka, and leaving the palace with his charioteer Chandaka.

Dressed in his royal attire and headdress, Prince Siddhartha was holding the reins of the horse in his left hand and raising his right hand in Abhaya Mudra (No fear gesture).

Accompanied by his charioteer Chandaka, and with the divine assistance of a God (either Lord Indra or Lord Brahma), Prince Siddhartha successfully passed through all the heavily guarded doors and gates. This is suggested by the depiction of Prince Siddhartha, and Khandaka passing through the door frame.

There are two figures on the left facing Prince Siddhartha. The one at the far left, who was dressed in a very simple dhoti and holding on to a stick-like object, is Prince Siddhartha, holding his horse whip. The figure in the middle, who is more elaborately dressed in short tunic, and wearing high boots is probably Lord Indra or Lord Brahma.

Historical Background

At the age of 29 years old, Prince Siddhartha made a decision to renounce the world in order to find the truth behind all sufferings.

When this final decision was taken after much deliberation, the news of the birth of a son was conveyed to him, while he was about to leave the park. Contrary to expectations, he was not overjoyed, but regarded his first and only offspring as an impediment.

It was the full moon night of Asalha, when Prince Siddhartha left the palace and city silently, riding his horse Kanthaka, with his charioteer Chandaka. They crossed the river Anoma and reached the other bank.1 p262, 2 p30, 3 p11, 4, fig 119, 5 p26, 6 p18, 7 c1, 8 p40

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  8. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Prince Leaves Home

宏大的离别


工艺品

The Great Departure and Subduing Mara’s Attack

弃皇离宫及天魔攻击

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32.4W x 4D x 10H (cm) 尺寸:高10、宽32.4、深4(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得“印度和东南亚艺术品”拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2015年3月18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

这片健驮罗浮雕雕刻所描述的是释迦摩尼一生的故事, 被柯林斯式的柱子分割成两个场景。

这两个场景的共同主题都围绕着佛陀的一生:

  1. 宏大的离别(右边),悉达多王子离开了他的王国,放弃了世俗的生活
  2. 承受玛拉的攻击(左边),玛拉是邪恶的,他的恶魔大军正在攻击苦行僧悉达多。

右面的画面(描绘了《宏大的离别》场景),悉达多王子骑着他的马,犍陟,和他的车夫车匿离开了皇宫。

悉达多王子穿着皇家礼服,头戴头饰,左手握着缰绳,右手举起,施无畏印(无畏的姿态)。

跟随着车夫车匿,在天神的庇佑下( 因陀罗或梵天),悉达多王子成功的通过所有戒备森严的门户和大门。悉达多和犍陟穿过门框的描绘暗示了这一点。

左侧有两个人物面对着悉达多王子。在最左边身穿简单的裹裙和手持棍状物的是悉达多王子,拿着他的马鞭。在中间的人物,穿着比较精致的短上衣和高筒靴的人可能是因陀罗或梵天。

历史背景

在悉达多王子29岁时,他决定放弃这个世界以便寻找解决所有苦难的真理。

当他经过深思熟虑做出这个决定之后,正当他要离开花园时,他得知了儿子出世的消息。与人们预期的相反,他并没有欣喜若狂,而是把自己的第一个孩子,也是唯一的孩子视为一种障碍。

在阿萨哈的满月之夜,悉达多王子骑着他的马犍陟与他的车夫车匿悄悄的离开了宫殿和城市。他们穿过了安诺玛河,到达对岸。1 p262, 2 p30, 3 p11, 4, fig 119, 5 p26, 6 p18, 7 c1, 8 p40

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  8. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Prince Leaves Home

The Great Renunciation

Artefact

The Great Renunciation

悉达多太子落发出家

Country of Origin: Cambodia 来源地:柬埔寨
Material: Terracotta 材质:赤陶土
Dimensions: 96W × 16D × 96H (cm) 尺寸:高96、宽96、深16(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Description

This Khmer bas relief panel (like Angkor Wat) depicts the scene of Prince Siddhartha’s Great Renunciation.

Prince Siddhartha is seen seated on a big stone, cutting his hair with a knife, as he is surrounded by celestial beings. A celestial being is witnessed hovering overhead to receive the locks of Prince Siddhartha’s hair, which he will carry off and enshrine in the Trayastrimsa Heaven.

At the left side of Prince Siddhartha lies a standing three-faced figure, who is probably Brahma (or the Trimutri), the Creator of Universe. The lower part of this artwork depicts the Anoma River, where Prince Siddhartha dismounted from his horse Kanthaka. Beside the river, the charioteer Chandaka is seen comforting Kanthaka, the Prince’s horse.

Historical Background

After Prince Siddhartha left the city, he crossed the river Anoma and reached the river bank. There, Prince Siddhartha cut his hair, removed his royal clothes and handed them over to Chandaka, instructing him to go back to the kingdom to inform his father King Shuddhodana, and his wife Yasodhara, that he has become an ascetic.2 p30, 6 p 18, 7 c1

Chandaka, feeling extremely sad, had to turn back to take Kanthaka back.

Kanthaka, however, felt that his master was not coming back with them and would not mount him again. He could not bear the pain of not being able to see his kind master anymore. It is reported that Kanthaka died on the spot having a 'heart-burst'. Therefore, Chandaka had to walk back alone to report what happened.

He had no permanent abode thereafter. A shady tree or a lonely cave sheltered him by day or night. Bare-footed and bare-headed, he walked in the scorching sun and in the piercing cold. With no possessions to call his own, but a bowl to collect his food and robes just sufficient to cover the body, he concentrated all his energies on the quest of Truth.

The Great Renunciation

悉达多太子落发出家

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Prince Leaves Home

宏大的放弃

工艺品

The Great Renunciation

悉达多太子落发出家

Country of Origin: Cambodia 来源地:柬埔寨
Material: Terracotta 材质:赤陶土
Dimensions: 96W × 16D × 96H (cm) 尺寸:高96、宽96、深16(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

描述

这幅高棉(柬埔寨)浅浮雕面板 ( 相似吴哥窟)描绘了悉达多王子宏大出家的场景。

悉达多王子坐在一块大石头上,用刀剃发,周围天神围绕。一个天神在他头顶盘旋,接过悉达多王子的头发,并将头发带到忉利天珍藏。

历史背景

悉达多王子离开城市后,他渡过阿诺玛河来到河岸。在那里,悉达多王子剃了头发,脱下自己的御衣,交给了车匿,指示他回到王国去通知他的父王净饭王和他的妻子耶输陀罗王后,他已经成为一名苦行僧。2 p30, 6 p 18, 7 c1

车匿感到非常伤心,不得不转身带着犍陟回去。

然而,犍陟感觉到它的主人不会跟他们一起回来,也不会再骑它。它(他)无法忍受再也见不到仁慈的主人的痛苦。据说,犍陟当场心碎而亡。因此,车匿不得不独自走回去汇报发生的事。

从此以后,悉达多王子没有固定居所。一棵阴凉的树或一个孤独的洞穴,都成为他白天或黑夜的庇护所。 他赤着脚光着头,在烈日下和刺骨的寒冷中行走。他身无分文,只有一个用来收集食物的碗和只够盖住身体的衣服,他把所有的精力都用在了探索真理上。

The Great Renunciation

悉达多太子落发出家

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Lalita Vistara, English Translation by R. L. Mitra, 1998, ISBN 81-7030-576-4
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  7. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Prince Leaves Home

Ascetic Siddhartha and Herd of Sheep

Artefact

Ascetic Siddhartha and Herd of Sheep

悉达多太子与羊群

Country of Origin: Nepal 来源地:尼泊尔
Material: Brass 材质:黄铜
Dimensions: 40W x 25D x 30H (cm) 尺寸:高30、宽40、深25(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from Mr Ee Tiang Hwee, given by Ven. Shi Fa ZhaoBBM

购置说明:

展品本是释法照大和尚BBM赠予余添辉,现由他转捐佛牙寺

Adopted by: Wesley Teo 捐赠者: 張志成

Description

After Prince Siddhartha renounced the world, he walked to the city of Rajagaha, the capital of the Magadha country. He begged for alms there, then decided to go to the mountains, where many hermits and sages lived. On the way there, he came across a flock of sheep.

Shepherds were driving the herd of sheep to Rajagaha to be sacrificed in a fire ceremony. One little lamb was injured. Out of compassion, Prince Siddhartha picked up the lamb and followed the shepherds back to the city.1 p 190

The king of this country was named King Bimbisara. In the city, the fire was burning on the altar. King Bimbisara and a group of priests were worshipping the fire. When the leader of the fire worshippers lifted his sword to kill the first sheep, Siddhartha quickly stopped him. He asked the King not to let the worshippers end the lives of the poor animals.

He told them: “Life is extremely precious. All living creatures want to live, just like people. If people expect mercy, they should be merciful. By the natural law of cause and effect, those who kill others will, in turn, be killed. If we expect happiness in the future, we must not harm any creatures.”

This speech completely changed the mind of the King and of the fire worshippers. The King thus stopped the killing ceremony and invited Siddhartha to stay and teach his people. But Siddhartha declined, as he had not yet found the truth he was seeking.

This piece of brass artwork depicts the scene where Siddhartha met the shepherd and sheep. He is holding the injured little lamb in his arm and is talking to the shepherd.

Bibliography:

  1. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010

苦行的悉达多和羊群

工艺品

Ascetic Siddhartha and Herd of Sheep

悉达多太子与羊群

Country of Origin: Nepal 来源地:尼泊尔
Material: Brass 材质:黄铜
Dimensions: 40W x 25D x 30H (cm) 尺寸:高30、宽40、深25(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from Mr Ee Tiang Hwee, given by Ven. Shi Fa ZhaoBBM

购置说明:

展品本是释法照大和尚BBM赠予余添辉,现由他转捐佛牙寺

Adopted by: Wesley Teo 捐赠者: 張志成

描述

悉达多王子出家后,他走到了摩揭陀国的首都——王舍城。他在那里行乞,然后决定去山上,那里有很多隐士和圣人。在路上他遇到了一群羊。

牧羊人正赶着一群羊去王舍城参加祭祀仪式。其中一只小羊受伤了,出于同情,悉达多抱起小羊,跟随牧羊人回到了城里。1 p 190

这个国家的国王叫频毘娑罗,在城里的祭坛上正燃烧着火。频婆娑罗国王和一群祭司正在朝拜火。当拜火者的首领举起剑要杀死第一只羊时,悉达多迅速阻止了他。他请求国王不要让朝拜者杀死这些可怜的动物。

他告诉他们:“生命是极其宝贵的。所有的生物都渴望活着,就像人一样。如果人们期望仁慈,他们就应该行仁慈。根据因果的自然法则,那些杀死别人的人,也将会被杀死。如果我们希望将来幸福,我们就不能伤害任何生物。”

这番言论让国王和朝拜火之人的心意完全改变。国王于是停止了杀戮仪式,并邀请悉达多留下来教导他的子民。但悉达多拒绝了,因为他还没有找到他所追寻的真理。

这件黄铜艺术品描绘了悉达多遇到牧羊人和羊群的场景, 他抱着受伤的小羊在跟牧羊人说话。

参考书目

  1. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010

Ascetic Life

Artefact

Ascetic Siddhartha

悉达多苦行像

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 16W x 10D x 22H (cm) 尺寸:高22、宽16、深10(厘米)
Period: Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) 时期:明朝(1368 – 1644)
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Sotheby’s ‘Asian Art’ Auction, Paris, 06 December 2007, Sale no. PF7020 as lot 16 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

苏富比 “东南亚艺术品” 拍卖会,巴黎,2007年12月 06日,售号PF7020,第16批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

Cast as the Ascetic Siddhartha with a serene and meditative expression, seated with crossed legs in Dhyanasana (meditation) posture, covered by robes, and his left hand rests on his lap in Dhayana (meditation) gesture.

In contrast with Gandharan art, this phase of Siddhartha’s life in Gandharan art, tend to show his body in emaciation; sun-baked, shrunken skin and bones, gaunt and constricted face, with hollows under the eyes. Self-mortification is highly accentuated in Gandharan form.

Historical Background

After leaving Magadha, he went to Vesali to practise under a famous ascetic Alara Kalama. Not satisfied with the results, he left to practice under revered teacher Uddaka Ramaputta. Again, this was not what he was looking for, so he left.1 c16, 2 p32, 3 p12, 7 p 19, 8 C2

There was no other teacher he could turn to for guidance. The only option, then, was to find out by himself what was there for him to attain beyond that Samadhi which would really solve the problems of suffering beings.

Then Siddhartha went to the village Senani in Uruvela province and finding it a suitable environment, decided to take residence there. In a short time, the five ascetics, who had ordained themselves after the naming ceremony prediction of his becoming a Buddha, found him. The five, namely Kondanna, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahanama, and Assaji, then started accompanying him and looking after him.1 c17

The accepted belief among the ascetics of the day was that it was by austere practices one could eradicate defilements of the mind. Siddhartha applied himself to ascetic practices, such as clenching the teeth while pressing the tongue to the palate, holding his breath for long intervals, and prolonged fasting. Taking it for granted, he increased the severity of his ascetic practices, day by day. He increasingly reduced his food intake and totally stopped going for alms. For sometimes, he ate only the fruits and leaves and then limited that, too, to what have fallen near him. His extreme penance even involved dangerous practices like trying to survive without breathing.4 fig 84, 5 fig 35, 9 p42

While thinking of an alternative path, the technique of Anapanasati (mindfulness of breathing) that he practiced as a child and surprised everybody at the ploughing festival came to his mind. He tried to meditate in that way but was not very successful, since he was very weak physically. Realizing that with an emaciated weak body, he would not be able to develop a pure and strong mind, the he gave up self-mortification completely and started taking solid food gradually.

The people in the village Seneni were happy to see him coming for alms again but the five companions, who never thought that it was possible to attain any spiritual height by any means other than severe penance, were not happy. They, including Kondanna, who was so sure of Siddhartha’s renunciation at the naming ceremony, thought that he was admitting failure and reverting to normal living. Therefore, they deserted him, charging that “Siddhartha is now bent over the luxuries.”

Siddhartha was not at all disappointed but was firm in his determination, very confident that he was now on the correct path. Six years of this harsh regiment of self-denial and abstinence brought Siddhartha near to death from starvation.

He started analysing his own mind, carefully discriminating wholesome thoughts from unwholesome thoughts, and entering into raptures when stressed. Balancing, calming and developing his mind, he was approaching the end of the sixth year of practicing penance.

BTRTM Similar Artefacts

Ascetic Siddhartha

修行者悉达多

Country of Origin: Vietnam 来源地:越南
Material: Paint on Fibre 材质:纤维涂料
Dimensions: 48W x 30D x 66H (cm) 尺寸:66高、48宽、30深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven. Shi Fa ZhaoBBM, received from Ven. Ming Chong

说明:

展品本是释明宗赠予释法照大和尚BBM,现由他转捐佛牙寺

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  8. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  9. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: Six Years of Searching

苦行的生活

工艺品

Ascetic Siddhartha

悉达多苦行像

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 16W x 10D x 22H (cm) 尺寸:高22、宽16、深10(厘米)
Period: Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) 时期:明朝(1368 – 1644)
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Sotheby’s ‘Asian Art’ Auction, Paris, 06 December 2007, Sale no. PF7020 as lot 16 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

苏富比 “东南亚艺术品” 拍卖会,巴黎,2007年12月 06日,售号PF7020,第16批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

悉达多苦行塑像,一副安详而沉思的表情,以禅坐的姿势盘腿坐着,披着僧袍,左手以禅坐的姿势搁在腿上。

与犍陀罗艺术相反,悉达多这一阶段的生活在犍陀罗艺术中,往往展现出他消瘦的身体,晒得干瘪的皮肤和骨头,瘦削和收缩的脸。自我苦行的形象以犍陀罗的艺术形式高度刻画出来。

历史背景

离开摩揭陀后,他去了毗撒利,跟随著名的苦行僧阿罗逻伽蓝一起修行。对结果不满意他便离开又跟随德高望重的乌达卡·拉马普塔修行。这也不是他想要寻找的,于是他离开了。1 c16, 2 p32, 3 p12, 7 p 19, 8 C2

他没有别的老师可以寻求指导,唯一的选择就是自己去探索在三摩地之外还有什么方法可以真正的解决众生之苦。

随后悉达多前往 乌鲁维拉省的赛纳尼村,他觉得那里的环境很合适,就决定在那里居住。在很短的时间,五名苦行者找到了他,这五人分别是,憍陈如Annata-Kondanna、跋堤Bhaddiya、十力迦叶Vappa、摩诃男Mahanama及阿说示Assaji。 五人开始陪伴和照顾他。1 c17

当时的苦行者普遍相信,只有通过苦行才能根除心灵上的污秽。悉达多苦行修行,比如咬紧牙关,舌头紧贴上颚,长时间的屏住呼吸,以及长时间的斋戒。他认为这是理所当然的,就一天天地加大他苦行的力度。他越来越少吃东西,完全不去托钵乞食。有时候他只吃水果和树叶,然后也限制自己只吃掉落在他身边的东西。他的极度苦修甚至包括一些危险的做法,比如尝试不呼吸而生存。4 fig 84, 5 fig 35, 9 p42

当他在思考替代的方法时,他想起了小时候练习过的“呼吸念力”的技巧、在犁耕节时让每个人都感到惊讶。他试着用那种方式冥想,但不太成功,因为他身体很虚弱。意识到自己瘦弱的身体无法培养出纯净坚强的心灵,他便彻底放弃了苦行,开始慢慢吃固体食物。

赛纳尼村的村民很高兴看到他再次前来托钵乞食,但五位同伴却不高兴,他们认为除了严格的苦行之外,不可能通过任何别的方式来达到精神上的高度。他们,包括憍陈如,都认为悉达多放弃了,以为他是承认失败并恢复了常人的生活。 因此,他们抛弃了他,指责“悉达多现在贪图享乐”了。

悉达多一点也没有失望,反而决心很坚定。他深信他现在走到正确的道路上。六年的苦行者生活使悉达多几乎饿死。

他开始分析自己的思想,仔细的区分有益的和无益的思想,并在压力之下进入全神贯注,平衡,平静和开拓他的思想,他已经接近六年的苦行生活了。

佛牙寺龙华院相似的藏品

Ascetic Siddhartha

修行者悉达多

Country of Origin: Vietnam 来源地:越南
Material: Paint on Fibre 材质:纤维涂料
Dimensions: 48W x 30D x 66H (cm) 尺寸:66高、48宽、30深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven. Shi Fa ZhaoBBM, received from Ven. Ming Chong

说明:

展品本是释明宗赠予释法照大和尚BBM,现由他转捐佛牙寺

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  8. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  9. Tokyo National Museum, NHK, The Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, Commemorative event for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and Pakistan, 2002

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: Six Years of Searching

Meditation Under the Bodhi Tree


Artefact

Buddha Shakyamuni in Meditation

释迦牟尼佛(禅定像)

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度 (曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 35W x 13D x 65H (cm) 尺寸:高65、宽35、深13(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie's ‘Art d'Asie’ Auction, Paris, 12 June 2012, Sale No. 3509 as lot 306 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得‘印度和东南亚艺术品’拍卖会、纽约、洛克菲勒、2012年6月 12日、售号3509、第306批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

This statue is a rare, almost unblemished specimen of Gandharan arts. At a height of 65cm, the statue displays Buddha Shakyamuni, in the Dhyana (meditation) posture, with His right hand on top of His left, palms facing upwards.

His divinity is marked by the nimbus, or halo behind His head, rendered in a chipped plain disk, as seen on many sacred images from Gandhara.

He sits with a straight back and legs in the full Vajra posture, with His eyes half-closed, looking straight ahead, but with His gaze lowered. He has long earlobes and wavy hair on His head and His Ushnisha. An Urna is found between His eyebrows. With slightly chubby facial features, He purse His lips,which form a subtly gentle smiling expression.

His robes feature distinctive U-shaped folds that are draping from His shoulders.

In the middle of its base façade is carved a bas-relief panel, executed in alto-relievo, showing a smaller image of Him, most probably before His Enlightenment, seated in exactly the same manner as the main statue but in princely garments, with two ordained worshippers on His right and two lay worshippers on His left.

All four figures stand and prostrate towards the Buddha in the middle, with their hands in the Añjali (offering or homage) mudra. The panel is framed by a curtain backdrop, whose folds echo those of the seated Buddha above, with concentric drapes bordered on both sides by straight, angular folds.

Historical Background

After dwelling on the banks of the Nairanjana River, with five ascetic followers for six years, to practice austerities, Siddhartha eventually abandoned his practice, when he realised that austerities could not lead to realisation. Siddhartha then moved towards the village of Bodhgaya.1 c18

It was the morning of Wesak full-moon day, in the year 598 B C. Lady Sujata of Senani was preparing for her annual milk-rice offering to the holy pipal tree, where she believed a powerful deity was residing.1, c19,2c0; 2 p37, 8 p206, 9 c2, 10 c3

She started this practice many years back when her request for a son was believed to have been granted by the deity. While making milk-rice for the offering, she sent her maid Punna to clean sweep around the tree.

She saw Siddhartha sitting cross-legged in the shade of the tree and amazed at the impressively handsome figure, she ran back to inform Sujata that she witnessed the deity appearing in the shade of the tree. Elated with happiness, Sujata, wasting no time, carried her milk-rice in a golden bowl to where the banyan tree was, hoping to see the deity with her own eyes.

She witnessed Siddhartha still sitting in the shade of the tree and was delighted, taking him as her deity. She offered the milk-rice to the hands of Siddhartha, and said, “As my wish had come true, let your wish also come true.” She left the golden bowl to Siddhartha and went back sizzling with joy.

After consuming the milk-rice offered by Sujatha, Siddhartha went to the riverbank and floating the golden bowl in the river, wished:

“I want to attain Enlightenment today itself. If my wish will be fulfilled let the bowl float upstream.” And to his delight, the bowl went upstream and sunk in the middle of the river.

Encouraged by that miracle, Siddhartha spent the afternoon in the Sala (Canon Ball) tree garden nearby, refreshing the samadhis attained during his stay with Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta.

In the evening, the Siddhartha was walking towards to the Pipal tree (now the Bodhi tree) when a grass cutter Sotthiya saw him. Thinking that the Siddhartha needed something to sit on, the grass cutter offered him eight bunches of grass.4 fig 61, 76 Then Siddhartha prepared a seat in the shade of the tree and sat facing east.4 fig101

While sitting on it, he made a firm resolution that he would not get up from the seat without attaining Enlightenment.

He said:

“Here on this seat my body may shrivel up,
my skin, my bones, my flesh may dissolve,
but my body will not move from this very seat
until I have attained Enlightenment,
so difficult to attain in the course of many kalpas.”

BTRTM Similar Artefacts

Buddha Shakyamuni in Meditation

释迦牟尼佛(禅定像)

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Bronze 材质:青铜
Dimensions: 36W x 36D x 46H (cm) 尺寸:46高、36宽、36深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven. Shi Fa ZhaoBBM

说明:

展品本是昭坤法照BBM送赠

Description

This exquisite sculpture depicts the Buddha in the Dhyana (meditation) posture, with His right hand on top of His left, palms facing upwards. The sculpture illustrates some of the Mahapurusalaksanas (thirty-two features of a Great Man) - the Urna (forehead mark in the form of a white tuff of hair between the eyebrows) and Ushnisha (fleshy crown on the head). The sculpture also illustrates elongated ears belonging to Anubyanjana (eighty secondary features of a Great Man).

The well rounded body and the deep U the way His robe is hanging in front of His chest, is typical of Tang-Song Dynasty style.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Golden Bowl
  2. Life of Buddha: Striving for Enlightenment

菩提树下冥想


工艺品

Buddha Shakyamuni in Meditation

释迦牟尼佛(禅定像)

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度 (曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 35W x 13D x 65H (cm) 尺寸:高65、宽35、深13(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie's ‘Art d'Asie’ Auction, Paris, 12 June 2012, Sale No. 3509 as lot 306 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得‘印度和东南亚艺术品’拍卖会、纽约、洛克菲勒、2012年6月 12日、售号3509、第306批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

这尊雕像是罕见的、几乎没有瑕疵的犍陀罗艺术标本。佛像高65厘米,展示了释迦牟尼佛的禅坐姿势,右手放在左手之上,掌心向上。

他的神迹是由他头部后面的灵气或光环表现出来的,这些光环是由碎片化的光盘来呈现,就像在犍陀罗的许多圣像上看到的那样。

他笔直地坐着,双腿呈金刚坐姿,眼睛半闭,直视前方,但目光低垂。他有长长的耳垂,头顶和肉髻上有波浪般的头发。双眉之间有白毫,他的面部圆润,双唇抿紧,呈一种即微妙又温柔的微笑表情。

他的长袍有独特的U形褶皱,从肩膀上垂下来。

底座中心雕刻了浅浮雕面板,高凸浮雕的手法,呈现他的小形象,很可能是在他成道之前,与主像以同样的方式坐着,但是穿了高贵的衣服,有两个被任命的信徒在他的右侧,两个朝拜者在他的左侧。

所有四个人物都站在中间,向佛陀下拜,双手持安伽利手印。这块面板由一个帘幕背景框住,帘幕的褶皱呼应了上面坐佛的褶皱,同心悬垂的窗帘在两侧都有笔直的折角为边界。

历史背景

悉达多与五名苦行者在尼连禅河岸边苦行了六年之后,终于放弃了苦行,因为他意识到苦行并不能带来觉悟。悉达多随后向菩提迦耶村走去。1 c18

那是公元前598年卫塞节满月日的早晨,西纳尼的苏嘉塔夫人正在准备牛奶-大米献祭给神圣的菩提树,她相信有强大的神灵住在那里。1, c19,2c0; 2 p37, 8 p206, 9 c2, 10 c3

她在很多年前就开始了这种习俗,她相信请求得到一个儿子的愿望已经被神灵所认同。在制作祭祀用的牛奶米的同时,她派女仆旁那清理树周围的杂草。

她看见悉达多盘腿坐在树阴下,对他那令人印象深刻的英俊身影感到惊讶,便跑回去告诉苏嘉塔,她亲眼看到神灵出现在树阴下。苏嘉塔喜出望外,连忙用一只金碗盛着牛奶米来到榕树下,希望亲眼见到神灵。

她看见悉达多仍坐在树阴下,便高兴地把他当作自己的神灵。她把牛奶米递到悉达多的手中,说:“既然我的愿望实现了,那就让您的愿望也实现。”她把金碗留给了悉达多,然后兴高采烈地回去了。

悉达多吃完苏嘉塔贡献的牛奶米后,来到河边,把金碗放在河里漂流,心想:

“我今天就想开悟。如果我的愿望能实现,就让碗逆流而上。”令他兴喜的是,这只碗逆流而上并在河中央沉了下去。

在这个奇迹的鼓励下,悉达多在附近的婆罗树花园用了一下午的时间,重新温故了与阿罗逻伽蓝和乌达卡·拉马普塔在一起时所学习的三摩地。

傍晚时分,悉达多正走向毕钵罗树(现在是菩提树),一个割草的索提雅看见了他。割草人觉得悉达多需要有东西坐着,就递给他八束草。4 fig 61, 76随后,悉达多在树荫下铺了一个座位,面朝东方坐了下来。4 fig101

坐着的时候,他打定了主意不开悟就不从座位上起来。

他说:

“坐在这个座位上,我的身体可能会枯萎,
我的皮肤,我的骨头,我的肉都会融化,
但我的身体不会从这个座位上移动
直到我悟道,
渡劫的过程是很艰难的。”

佛牙寺龙华院相似的藏品

Buddha Shakyamuni in Meditation

释迦牟尼佛(禅定像)

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Bronze 材质:青铜
Dimensions: 36W x 36D x 46H (cm) 尺寸:46高、36宽、36深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven. Shi Fa ZhaoBBM

说明:

展品本是昭坤法照BBM送赠

描述

这尊精美的雕塑描绘了佛陀的禅坐姿势,他的右手放在左手之上,掌心向上。这尊雕像展现了三十二相(得道的人有三十二相)里的一些相貌 - 眉间白毫相(两眉之间有白毫),顶上肉髻相(顶上有肉,隆起如髻形之相)。这尊雕像也呈现了属于八十种好(得道的人有的八十二种次要相)的细长耳朵。

他圆润的身体和深U袍挂在胸前的方式,是典型的唐宋风格。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Golden Bowl
  2. Life of Buddha: Striving for Enlightenment

Subduing Mara's Attack

Artefact

The Great Departure and Subduing Mara’s Attack

弃皇离宫及天魔攻击

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32.4W x 4D x 10H (cm) 尺寸:高10、宽32.4、深4(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得“印度和东南亚艺术品”拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2015年3月18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

Sculpted in this Gandharan relief was the life story of Buddha Shakyamuni, depicted in two scenes framed, and separated by Corinthian pilasters.

These two scenes are common themes revolving around the Life of the Buddha:

  1. Subduing Mara’s Attack or Maradharsana (on the left), where Mara, the Evil One, with his demon armies attacked the ascetic Siddhartha; and
  2. The Great Departure (on the right), where Prince Siddhartha left his kingdom and renounced the worldly life.

The scene on the left frame depicts the story of the evil Mara, and his demon armies attacking ascetic Siddhartha to prevent Siddhartha from gaining Enlightenment.

Historical Background

Throughout the course of pondering and meditation, Mara, the personification of evil, was persistent and tried many attempts to prevent Siddhartha from coming to the Ultimate Understanding.1 c21; 2 p38, 8 p51; 3 p75, 9 c2, 10 c3

Mara sent his armies of monsters, but all their weapons and fired arrows transformed into flowers. As a final attack, Mara deployed his stunning, sensual daughters, who danced, voluptuously around Siddhartha, and attempted to seduce him. Mara said that nobody would believe that he had not succumbed to their tricks and techniques.4 fig 7,67; 6 fig 40

With this, the solitary Siddhartha called the Earth Goddess to be his witness, by signalling down with his right hand. The earth opened and the goddess confirmed that he had remained steadfast. Mara backed down and slunk away.

Mara is the personification of evil in Buddhism. He is the most powerful, and the most formidable devil, who delights in manipulating others to do what he desires. Hence, he is also known as ‘Papima Maro’ or ‘Namuci Maro’, the opponent of liberation, or the personification of evil passions, and of death.2 p38

In Buddhism, Mara is said to possess ten kinds of passions as follows:

  1. Sense pleasures;
  2. Aversion to holy life;
  3. Hunger and thirst;
  4. Craving/ Desire;
  5. Sloth and torpor;
  6. Fear;
  7. Doubts;
  8. Detraction and obstinacy;
  9. Gain, praise, honour and ill-gotten fame; and
  10. Boasting and contempt of others.

BTRTM Similar Artefacts

Subduing Mara’s Attack

征服魔障

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Description

This gold leaf on copper panel is the initial trial panel of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple. This was crafted by Shanghai Kangyu Enterprise.

The scene of ‘Subduing Mara’s Attack’ is elaborated with vivid depictions of meditating Buddha as the center figure, surrounded by Demon Mara’s armies (in form of personified passions), against the backdrop of the Bodhi tree.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: Striving for Enlightenment
  2. Incredible India | Bodh Gaya
  3. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya - UNESCO World Heritage Centre

战胜天魔攻击

工艺品

The Great Departure and Subduing Mara’s Attack

弃皇离宫及天魔攻击

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 32.4W x 4D x 10H (cm) 尺寸:高10、宽32.4、深4(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得“印度和东南亚艺术品”拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒,2015年3月18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

在这个犍陀罗浮雕中所雕刻的是释迦牟尼佛的生活故事,由两幅场景所组成,并由科林斯式的壁柱所分开。

这两个场景围绕着佛陀生活的主题:

  1. 战胜天魔或马拉达萨那的攻击(在左侧),天魔,邪恶的一个,带着他的恶魔军队攻击正在苦行的悉达多;和
  2. 离家修行(在右侧),悉达多王子离开了他的王国,放弃了尘世的生活。

左边的画面描绘了邪恶的天魔和他的恶魔军队攻击正在苦行的悉达多,阻止悉达多达到觉悟的故事。

历史背景

在整个思考和冥想的过程中,邪恶的化身天魔坚持不懈,多次尝试阻止悉达多达到最终的觉悟。1 c21; 2 p38, 8 p51; 3 p75, 9 c2, 10 c3

天魔派出了他的恶魔军队,但他们所有的武器和射出的箭都变成了鲜花。作为最后一击,天魔派出了令人眩晕的、充满诱惑的女儿们,她们在悉达多周围纵情起舞,试图勾引他。天魔说,没有人会相信他没有屈服于魔女的诱惑。4 fig 7,67; 6 fig 40

孤独的悉达多用右手示意大地女神为他作证。大地裂开了,女神证实他坚定不移。天魔退下来,偷偷溜走了。

天魔是佛教中邪恶的化身。他是最强大、最可怕的恶魔,以操纵别人做他想做的事为乐。因此,他也被称为" 天魔波旬 "或" 天魔波卑夜 ",他反对解放,或是邪恶感情和死亡的化身。2 p38

在佛教中,据说天魔会带来以下十种激情:

  1. 感觉快乐;
  2. 对神圣生活的厌恶;
  3. 饥饿和干渴;
  4. 渴望/欲望;
  5. 懒惰和麻木;
  6. 害怕;
  7. 怀疑;
  8. 诽谤和固执;
  9. 获得、赞扬、荣誉和不义之名;和
  10. 自夸和蔑视他人。

佛牙寺龙华院相似的藏品

Subduing Mara’s Attack

征服魔障

Country of Origin: China, Commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

描述

这块原本尝试制作的镀金铜板藏于佛牙寺龙华院四楼的佛牙舍利塔座下方,它描绘了释迦摩尼佛人生八个阶段的其中一个阶段。 本制品由上海康宇集团制作。

“战胜天魔攻击”的场景,以菩提树为背景,生动地描绘了冥想中的佛陀作为中心人物,被恶魔天的恶魔军团(以个性化的激情形式)所围困。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: Striving for Enlightenment
  2. Incredible India | Bodh Gaya
  3. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya - UNESCO World Heritage Centre

The Enlightenment


Artefact

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni and the Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的启示及初转法轮

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 39.5W × 26D × 73H (cm) 尺寸:高73、宽39.5、深26(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple & Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 “印度和东南亚艺术品” 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒, 2015年3月 18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

The story in this relief starts from the right, where Buddha Sakyamuni is seen seated on a throne flanked by two figures, under the Bodhi Tree; displaying the Bhumisparsha (Calling-earth-to-bear-witness) mudra, after subduing Mara’s attack, while His left hand is holding the hem of His robes.6 fig 40

The figure on His left wears a turban, dressed in dhoti up to his waist. He seemed to be unsheathing his sword, while looking at the Buddha intently. The slouching figure at the Buddha Sakyamuni’s right had his body turned away from the Buddha, looking at the Buddha with a defeated look. This shows Subduing Mara’s Attack, where Buddha became victorious, when He overcame the accumulated temptations of Demon Mara.

At the centre, Buddha is seen seated on the ground in Dhyana (meditative) mudra and backed by a nimbus looking at the Bodhi tree, with a figure in reverence standing behind Him.

At the far right of the relief, shows a wheel on the pedestal where Buddha sits, which signifies the Turning of the Dharma Wheel, as Buddha expound His Teachings to the five ascetics surrounding Him.

Throughout the scenes, the depiction of the Buddha is consistent – His hair is raised into Ushnisha, His body fully covered in drapery of monastic robes, His face presents a serene look in deep contemplation.

Historical Background

After subduing Mara, Siddhartha gazed at the star-lit night sky of Bodh Gaya. With his thoughts, single-minded determination, purified and cleansed, free from all impurities, Siddhartha developed the knowledge called ‘Pubbenivasanussati nana’ (Reminiscence of Past Lives) in the first watch of the night.2 p40, 9 c2, 10 c 3

In the second watch of the night, he developed the knowledge called the ‘Cutupapata nana’ (Perception of Disappearance and Reappearance of Beings).

In the last watch of the night, he developed the knowledge of ‘Asavakkhaya nana’ (Cessation of all Cankers).

He realized the 3 basic components of the Dharma: The Four Noble Truths, The Noble Eight-fold Path and The Middle Way.3 p14

The Four Noble Truths: Suffering, the Cause of Suffering, the Release from Suffering, and the Way to the Release from Suffering.

"Through many a birth in Samsara wandered I,
Seeking, but not finding, the builder of this house.
Sorrowful is repeated birth.
O house builder! You art seen.
You shall build no house again.
All your rafters are broken, your ridgepole is shattered.
The mind attains the unconditioned.
Achieved is the end of craving."

He was liberated from the cycle of endless rebirths in this Samsara world. Without any guidance or inspiration from any kind of supernatural agency.

Siddhartha achieved ‘Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi’ (Supreme Perfect Enlightenment) and became ‘The Enlightened one, The Historical Buddha’, by his own effort at the age of 35.

Bodh Gaya is thus known as the Buddha Shakyamuni’s Place of Enlightenment.8

BTRTM Similar Artefact 1

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni

释迦牟尼佛的启示

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Gilded Wood 材质:镀金木
Dimensions: 95W × 57D × 147H (cm) 尺寸:147高、95宽、57深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Chief Abbott Sayadaw Kite Ti, Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery, Inle Lake, Taunggyi District of Shan State, Myanmar

说明:

缅甸,茵莱湖,东枝县,Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery任首席大和尚Sayadaw Kite Ti送赠

Description

This Burmese Buddha Shakyamuni is depicted with a deep serene expression, sitting on an elaborate throne, decorated with six tiers of floral and lotus motifs. He has enlarged downcast eyes, broad-arching connected eyebrows and long ear-lobes reaching His shoulders. Emanating from the crown of His head is a two-tiered cone finial, upper is stream-lined with a spherical end.

His right hand is in Bhumisparsha (Calling-earth-to-bear-witness) mudra, while the left hand remains quietly in His lap, palms up. This mudra marks the significance of Buddha calling the earth to be His witness, when He had reached Enlightenment.

His legs are in Padmasasna (lotus) posture, where the legs are tucked in tightly together, crossed at the ankles with right atop left, with the bottoms of both feet facing upward and resting on opposite thighs.

This Burmese Buddha Shakyamuni sculpture illustrates some of the prevalent features from the Mahapurusalaksanas (thirty-two features of a Great Man) – long fingers and Ushnisha (protruding crown shaped like a stupa on His head). The sculpture also illustrates elongated ears, which belongs to Anubyanjana (eighty secondary features of a Great Man).

BTRTM Similar Artefact 2

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni

释迦牟尼佛的启示

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 39.5W × 26D × 73H (cm) 尺寸:73高、39.5宽、26深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Adopted by: Late Teo Luan and Family 捐赠者:張銮(往生)合家

Description

This is a bronze Burmese sculpture of the Buddha Shakyamuni in a seated position, on a three-tier throne. He is seen with Bhumisparsha (Calling-earth-to-bear-witness) mudra : His right hand over the knee, fingers together and reaching to touch the ground, while the left hand remains quietly in His lap, palms up. This mudra marks the significance of Buddha calling the earth to be His witness, when He had reached Enlightenment.

This Burmese Buddha Shakyamuni sculpture illustrates some of the prevalent features from the Mahapurusalaksanas (thirty-two features of a Great Man) – the Urna (forehead mark in the form of a white tuft of hair between the eyebrows) and Ushnisha (protruding crown shaped like a stupa on His head). The sculpture also illustrates elongated ears, which belongs to Anubyanjana (eighty secondary features of a Great Man).

Ven. Chao Khun Fa ZhaoBBM's Pilgrimage to Bodhgaya, India


In 2007, the chief Abbott of Buddha Tooth Relic Temple (Singapore) Ven. Chao Khun Fa ZhaoBBM went on a pilgrimage to Bodh Gaya, India.

In approximately 250 BCE, about 200 years after the Buddha attained Enlightenment, Buddhist Emperor Asoka visited Bodh Gaya, in order to establish a monastery and shrine on the holy site.

The history of Bodh Gaya is documented by many inscriptions and pilgrimage accounts. Foremost among these are the accounts of the Chinese pilgrims, such as Faxian in the 5th century and Xuanzang in the 7th century.

This area was at the heart of a Buddhist civilization for centuries, until it was conquered by Turkic armies, in the 13th century. The place-name, Bodh Gaya, did not come into use until the 18th century CE. Historically, it was known as Uruvela, Sambodhi (“Complete Enlightenment” in Ashoka’s Major Rock Edict No.8), Vajrasana (the "Diamond Throne" of the Buddha), or Mahabodhi ("Great Enlightenment").

The main monastery of Bodh Gaya used to be called the Bodhimanda-vihāra (Pali). Now it is called the Mahabodhi Temple.

The humble beginnings of Buddhism emerged in the eastern part of Ancient India, in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and flourished in India, during 3rd century BCE with King Ashoka’s royal patronage on the Teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni.

Buddhism may not be the predominant religion in India today, but it has never completely left India.

In 2002, Bodh Gaya was announced as UNESCO world heritage site. We participated in the ceremony, as part of the Singapore contingent.

Since then, Bodh Gaya has become a global destination. Such a holy destination warrants the visits of Buddhist devotees and monks from worldwide to seek religious refuge and embark on pilgrimages.

Bibliography, Websites & Video

Bibliography:

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Sun of Enlightenment Shines
  2. Incredible India | Bodh Gaya

Video:

  1. Iconic Destination – Bodh Gaya

觉悟成道


工艺品

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni and the Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的启示及初转法轮

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 39.5W × 26D × 73H (cm) 尺寸:高73、宽39.5、深26(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple & Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 “印度和东南亚艺术品” 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒, 2015年3月 18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

作品描述的场景是从右边开始的,释迦摩尼佛坐在菩提树下的宝座上,两侧有两个人物;在战胜了天魔的攻击后,他展示了降魔手印(手指触地,令大地为证),同时他的左手握着长袍下方的缝边。6 fig 40

他左边的人物戴着头巾,穿着齐腰的裹裙。他目不转睛地望着佛陀,似乎是在拔出他的剑。释迦牟尼右边的那个无精打采的人物把身体转离佛陀,带着一种失败的神情看着佛陀。这张图显示了战胜天神的攻击,佛陀胜利,他战胜了恶魔的诱惑。

在中间,可以看到佛陀在地上禅坐(冥想),望着菩提树,身后站着一个毕恭毕敬的人物。

最右边,佛陀坐的底座上有一个轮子,代表佛陀向周围的五个苦行者讲解他的教义时,法轮的转动。

在整个画面中,对佛陀的描绘是一致的——他的头发挽起肉髻,身披僧袍,他的脸呈现出沉思的神态。

历史背景

在战胜天魔之后,悉达多凝视着菩提伽耶星光灿烂的夜空。

一、初夜分的时候,宿住智證明(宿命明)—— 觀察前際得宿住隨念智證通,能夠遍見我及眾生一生乃至無量生之相狀之智慧。2 p40, 9 c2, 10 c 3

二、中夜分的时候,生死智證明(天眼明)—— 即了知眾生死時生時、善色惡色,或由邪法因緣成就惡行,命終生惡趣之中;或由正法因緣成就善行,命終生善趣中等等生死相狀之智慧。

三、后夜分的时候,漏盡智證明(漏盡明)—— 了知如實證得四諦之理,解脫漏心,滅除一切煩惱等之智慧。

他领悟了佛法的三个基本组成部分:四圣谛、八正道和中道。3 p14

“四圣谛”说四种真理:一者、苦圣谛;二者、集圣谛;三者、灭圣谛;四者、道圣谛。

“无数次出生轮回,
我寻找,但找不到,造物者。
痛苦一次又一次。
造物者!你的艺术。
你不要再建造房屋。
你所有的椽都坏了,你的梁是破碎的。
内心已经无所求。
欲望也已终结。”

在这个轮回的世界里,在没有任何超自然力量的引导和启示下他从无尽的轮回中解脱出来。

悉达多在35岁时通过自己的顿悟成就了“阿耨多羅三藐三菩提”(无上正等正觉),成为了“觉悟者,历史上的佛陀”。

菩提伽耶因此被称为释迦牟尼佛的觉悟之地。8

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品1

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni

释迦牟尼佛的启示

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Gilded Wood 材质:镀金木
Dimensions: 95W × 57D × 147H (cm) 尺寸:147高、95宽、57深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Chief Abbott Sayadaw Kite Ti, Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery, Inle Lake, Taunggyi District of Shan State, Myanmar

说明:

缅甸,茵莱湖,东枝县,Nga Phe Kyaung Monastery任首席大和尚Sayadaw Kite Ti送赠

描述

这尊缅甸释迦牟尼佛呈一副深沉安详的神情,坐在精致的宝座上,宝座上装饰着六层花卉和莲花图案。他的眼睛大而俯视下方,眉毛宽而弯,耳垂长至肩膀。从他的头顶上方延伸出一个两层的圆锥顶尖,顶端是流线型的球体。

他的右手持降魔印(大地见证)手印,而左手静静地放在膝盖上,掌心向上。这手印标志着佛陀召唤大地见证,他已经成就佛道。

他的双腿呈莲花式,双腿紧紧地收在一起,在脚踝处交叉,右腿放在左腿上面,双脚的底部向上,放在大腿的交叉对面。

这尊缅甸释迦牟尼佛的雕塑展现了三十二相(得道的人有的三十二种相)里的一些相貌 - 手指修长相和顶上肉髻相(头顶上有佛塔形状的凸出冠)。这尊雕像也呈现延伸的耳朵,是八十种好里提到的相貌(得道的人有的八十二种好相)。

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品2

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni

释迦牟尼佛的启示

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 39.5W × 26D × 73H (cm) 尺寸:73高、39.5宽、26深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Adopted by: Late Teo Luan and Family 捐赠者:張銮(往生)合家

描述

这尊缅甸的释迦牟尼佛青铜雕塑,是坐在三层的宝座上的坐像。他的右手持降魔印(大地见证)手印,而左手静静地放在膝盖上,掌心向上。这手印标志着佛陀召唤大地见证,他已经成就佛道。

这尊缅甸释迦牟尼佛的雕塑展现了三十二相(得道的人有的三十二种相)里的一些相貌 - 眉间白毫相(额头眉间有一簇白毫)和顶上肉髻相(头顶上有佛塔形状的凸出冠)。这尊雕像也呈现延伸的耳朵,是八十种好里提到的样貌(得到的人有的八十二种好相)。

昭坤法照法师BBM去印度的菩提伽耶朝圣


2007年,新加坡佛牙寺住持释法照大和尚去印度菩提伽耶朝圣。

佛教始传于菩提伽耶(一个叫乌鲁维拉的小村庄),佛陀在那里的菩提树下悟道。

大约在公元前250年,也就是佛陀悟道大约200年后,佛教的阿育王到访菩提伽耶,以便在圣地上建立修道院和寺庙。

许多碑文和朝圣记载了菩提伽耶的历史。其中最重要的是关于中国朝圣者的记述,如公元5世纪的法显和公元7世纪的玄奘。

几个世纪以来,该地区一直是佛教文明的核心,直到13世纪被突厥军队占领。菩提伽耶这个地名直到公元18世纪才开始使用。在历史上,它被称为乌鲁韦拉,三宝地(《阿育王的主要岩石法令》 第8号中的 “完全启蒙” ),金刚沙那(“ 钻石王座”大启示“),或摩诃菩提(“大开悟”)。

菩提伽耶最主要的寺庙过去被称为Bodhimanda-vihāra(巴利语)。现在它被称为摩诃菩提寺。

在古代印度的东部,在古代摩陀王国(现在在印度的比哈尔邦)及其周围,佛教开始萌芽,并在公元前3世纪,在国王阿育王的皇家庇佑下,在印度蓬勃发展。

佛教也许不是今天印度的主要宗教,但它从未完全离开过印度。

2002年,菩提伽耶被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产。我们作为新加坡代表团的成员之一,参加了仪式。

从那以后,菩提伽耶就成为了全球的旅游盛地。这样一个神圣的地方,是世界各地佛教信众和僧侣前来朝圣的好地方。

参考书目、网站及视频

参考书目

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Sun of Enlightenment Shines
  2. Incredible India | Bodh Gaya

参考视频

  1. Iconic Destination – Bodh Gaya

7 Weeks After Enlightenment


Historical Background

Seven spots within the precincts of the Maha Bodhi Temple are especially sacred, as the Buddha spent 1 week at each spot meditating, after his Enlightenment.1 c24; 2 p41; 3 p 82; 8 p61

  • Week 1

    Buddha sat and meditated under the Bodhi Tree.

  • Week 2

    The Buddha stood and meditated gazing at the Bodhi Tree.

  • Week 3

    He walked and meditated along the Jewel Promenade.

  • Week 4

    The Buddha meditated at the Jewel House.

  • Week 5

    The Buddha meditated under a Banyan tree.

  • Week 6

    The Buddha meditated under the Muchalinda tree.

  • Week 7

    The Buddha meditated under the Rajayatana tree.

Artefacts

Week 1

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni and the Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的启示及初转法轮

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 39.5W × 26D × 73H (cm) 尺寸:高73、宽39.5、深26(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple & Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 “印度和东南亚艺术品” 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒, 2015年3月 18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

At the centre section of the relief, Buddha is seen seated on the ground in Dhyana (meditative) mudra and backed by a nimbus looking at the Bodhi tree, with a figure in reverence standing behind Him.6 fig 49

Historical Background

Throughout the first week, the Buddha sat under the Bodhi tree in one posture, experiencing the Vimutti Sukha (Bliss of Emancipation). He was contemplating on Dependant Origination, in ascending and descending order.2 p 41, 8 p51, 9 c4

Vajrasana Diamond Throne is where He sat and gained Enlightenment.

Week 2

Mandalay Buddha Shakyamuni

曼德勒式立佛

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Gold paint on Bronze 材质:铜漆彩
Dimensions: 24.5W x 20D x 94H (cm) 尺寸:高94、宽24.5、深20(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九至二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from Late Honourable Justice Mootatamby Karthigesu

购置说明:

已故尊敬的法官Mootatamby Karthigesu之馈赠

Description

This is a depiction of a Standing Mandalay Buddha - The robes worn by the Buddha cascade beautifully over His left shoulder. Delicately cast folds and pleats decorate the robes, contributing to the majestic aura of the Mandalay Buddha.

Mandalay Buddha is often depicted with a broad band across the forehead as you can see here. The Buddha displays Varada (bestowing a blessing or charity) mudra, with His right palm facing the viewer, while His left hand gently grasps the ends of His robe.

Unlike most depicted Mandalay Buddha who is usually adorned with inset mirror glasses on the side and hems of the robe, the Mandalay Buddha displayed here is depicted in a simple style, illustrating the cascading folds, pleats and creases with gold paint.

Mandalay became the capital of Burma under the reign of King Mindon during 19th Century.

Buddhist art and architecture flourished in this region and developed its own style. Standing Buddha is one of the most popular forms of Buddhist sculptures of this style.

Historical Background

The Buddha stood at the Animesh Lochana Chaitya and meditated with perfect, unblinking focus on the Bodhi tree, with thankfulness for its shade and protection.8 p97

This is north-east of the Mahabodhi Temple.

BTRTM Similar Artefact 1

Standing Buddha Shakyamuni

不动立佛

Country of Origin: Sri Lanka 来源地:斯里兰卡
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 9W x 5D x 30 H (cm) 尺寸:30高、9宽、5深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven Gnaissara Maha Thera, Chief Incumbent of Gangaramaya Temple, Colombo, Sri Lanka

说明:

斯里兰卡,科伦坡,Gangaramaya Temple现任首席长老Galboda Gnanissara送赠

Description

This Buddha is seen in the Abhaya (fear-dispelling) mudra with His right hand held upward with fingers together, palms facing outward. The hand is raised from the arm which is bent at the elbows. The mudra further represents reassurance.

The flame-like finial on the Buddha’s crown is also common in Buddha sculptures from Thailand which varies in design. The finial is said to emanate the fiery energy or explosive spiritual power of the Buddha.9p48

Hem of the outer robe falls from shawl over left arm and thigh towards the feet.

BTRTM Similar Artefact 2

Standing Buddha Shakyamuni

不动立佛

Country of Origin: Cambodia 来源地:柬埔寨
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 8W x 7D x 30H (cm) 尺寸:30高、8宽、7深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Description

This typical depiction of the Cambodian Standing Buddha displays the abhaya mudra, also known as the fear dispelling gesture, which symbolises peace, protection and dispelling of fear. He is dressed in cloak like robe cascading from His shoulders that are exquisitely yet subtly decorated, but leaving His top body bare, save for an elaborate necklace and adorned with a belt left hanging at His waist in front.

This standing Buddha bears the typical Khmer styled Buddha statues that are marked by a broad face with thick lips and a high conical finial. Both Buddha’s palms are incised with the Dharma wheel, which is part of Mahapurusalaksanas (thirty-two major marks of Perfection).

Week 3

Historical Background

He meditated and walked along the Ratnachank-rama or Jeweled Promenade between the Bodhi Tree and Animeshlochana Chaitya for a whole week.8 p64

This is adjacent to the north of the Mahabodhi Temple.

Week 4

Historical Background

The Buddha was meditating and reflecting on the higher concepts, Ahidhamma Pitaka at the jewel house, Ratnaghar Chaitya, There six rays of colour radiated from Him - blue, yellow, red, white, orange and a combination of all five colours. These colours became the basis for the Buddhist Flag.

This is north-west of the Mahabodhi Temple.

Week 5

Historical Background

The Buddha meditated under a Banyan tree, Ajapala Nigrodha.2 p 42

This is at the east gate of the Mahabodhi Temple.

Week 6

Muchalinda Naga Sheltering Buddha Shakyamuni

龙王护佛式佛像

Country of Origin: India 来源地:印度
Material: Painted Stone 材质:结石漆彩
Dimensions: 34 W x 24 D x 84 (cm) 尺寸:高84、宽34、深24(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九至二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from the wife of the late Honourable Justice Mootatamby Karthigesu

购置说明:

已故尊敬的法官Mootatamby Karthigesu夫人之馈赠

Description

This is a depiction of the Buddha receiving protection from the Naga king, Muchalinda.

Naga-protected Buddhist art forms are commonly found in Cambodia and Thailand, which flourished during the Khmer empire (802 CE to 1432 CE). Such sculptures of Buddha Shakyamuni are typical emblems of Khmer-Mahayana tradition. The right hand of this sculpture displays Abhaya (fear-dispelling) mudra, while the left hand displays the Dhyana (meditation) mudra.

It is a rare occurrence as most other forms of Naga-protected Buddha usually displays the Bhumisparsha (calling-earth-to-witness) mudra. The Buddha is seen in the Lalitasana (relaxation) posture while resting on the two-tiered Naga throne; one leg is bent horizontally atop the pedestal (formed from the same five-headed Naga that shelters Him from the storm), the other leg extending down toward the floor.

Unlike other Buddhist forms of Naga-protected Buddha, this sculpture has a red circular nimbus behind the head of the Buddha. Most Naga-protected Buddha would feature the Naga’s hood as a relatively larger conical nimbus behind the Buddha from above the shoulders.

Another feature that differs from other Naga-protected Buddha is His hair, which is more likely to have Hellenistic origins, a style commonly found in Gandharan period (2nd CE to 3rd CE).

Historical Background

Six weeks after attaining Enlightenment, a storm broke out while the Buddha was mediating under the Muchalinda tree. The Naga king, Muchalinda, payed homage to the Buddha by sheltering Him from the storm, spreading his hood over Buddha, acting as a canopy to protect Him from the rain.2 p 43, 8 p77

This is south of the Mahabodhi Temple.

BTRTM Similar Artefact

Muchalinda Naga Sheltering Buddha Shakyamuni

龙王护佛式佛像

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Wood 材质:木
Dimensions: 8W x 9D x 15H (cm) 尺寸:15高、8宽、9深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Thai Minister

说明:

已故泰国部长馈赠

Description

This is a depiction of the Buddha receiving protection from the Naga king, Muchalinda. Muchalinda, the multi-hooded snake king protects the Buddha against the thunder and rain sent by the asuras and demons, to disturb His meditation. Unlike other Buddhist art forms of the Muchalinda, this particular Muchalinda has a singular head compared to the varied manifestations with multi-heads (usually seven or nine). The Buddha is seated on top of Muchalinda’s coiled up body, while He displays the Dhyana (meditation) mudra.

Week 7

Historical Background

The Buddha meditated under the Rajayatana tree for higher wisdom. This is south-east of the Mahabodhi Temple.

At the end of the week, two merchants, Tapussu and Bhallika approached Him and offered Him food.1 c24; 2 p44 This is the first food the Buddha had eaten since His Enlightenment. These merchants became the first lay followers of the Buddha. It was said that the Buddha gave His two disciples a few strands of His hair. These two merchants (eventually became disciples) took them back to their own country to build stupa.

Currently, these relics are enshrined in the famous Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Carol Stratton, Buddhist Sculpture of Northern Thailand, 2004, ISBN 13: 9781932476095

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: Seven Weeks After Enlightenment

觉悟后的第七周


历史背景

在摩诃菩提寺范围内的七个地点是特别神圣的,因为佛陀开悟后在每个地点花了一周的时间冥想。1 c24; 2 p41; 3 p 82; 8 p61

  • 第一周

    佛陀在菩提树下禅坐。

  • 第二周

    佛陀站在那里,凝视着菩提树冥想。

  • 第三周

    他沿着莲花步道散步和冥想。

  • 第四周

    佛陀在莲花塔禅坐。

  • 第五周

    佛陀在榕树下禅坐。

  • 第六周

    佛陀在沐伽林达树下禅坐。

  • 第七周

    佛陀在剌伽特纳树下禅坐。

工艺品

第一周

The Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni and the Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的启示及初转法轮

Country of Origin: Ancient India (Gandhara) 来源地:古代印度(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 39.5W × 26D × 73H (cm) 尺寸:高73、宽39.5、深26(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockefeller, 18 March 2015, Sale No. 3716 as lot 4013 to Buddha Tooth Relic Temple & Museum (BTRTM)

购置说明:

佳士得 “印度和东南亚艺术品” 拍卖会,纽约,洛克菲勒, 2015年3月 18日,售号3716,第4013批,新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

在浮雕的中心位置,可以看到佛陀坐在地上作禅定(冥想)手印,背靠灵气,望着菩提树,身后站着毕恭毕敬的人物。6 fig 49

历史背景

在第一周,佛陀以一种姿势坐在菩提树下,觉悟解脱之乐 (解脱之福)。2 p 41, 8 p51, 9 c4

菩提迦耶的钻石王座是他坐的和获得觉悟的地方。

第二周

Mandalay Buddha Shakyamuni

曼德勒式立佛

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Gold paint on Bronze 材质:铜漆彩
Dimensions: 24.5W x 20D x 94H (cm) 尺寸:高94、宽24.5、深20(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九至二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from Late Honourable Justice Mootatamby Karthigesu

购置说明:

已故尊敬的法官Mootatamby Karthigesu之馈赠

描述

这是一尊曼德勒的佛陀雕像——佛陀所穿的长袍漂亮地挂在他的左肩上。精致的褶皱装饰着长袍,为曼德勒佛陀的威严光环添色彩。

就如同您在此看到的一样,曼德勒佛陀形象的描绘,通常是额头有一条宽带。佛陀持慈悲手印(施福或施舍),他的右手掌对着观众,而他的左手温柔地抓住他的长袍的末端。

与大多数描绘曼德勒佛陀所不同的是,曼德勒佛陀通常装饰在侧面和长袍的褶边,这里展示的曼德勒佛陀以一种简单的风格描绘,用金色颜料描绘层叠的褶皱和折痕。

曼德勒在19世纪敏登国王统治下成为缅甸的首都。

佛教艺术和建筑在这个地区繁荣发展,形成了自己的风格。立佛是这种风格的佛教雕塑中最受欢迎的形式之一。

历史背景

佛陀站在阿尼迈悉娄羌塔,在菩提树的正前方,完美地、不眨眼地冥想,感谢它的荫凉和保护。8 p97

这是在摩诃菩提寺的东北面。

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品1

Standing Buddha Shakyamuni

不动立佛

Country of Origin: Sri Lanka 来源地:斯里兰卡
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 9W x 5D x 30 H (cm) 尺寸:30高、9宽、5深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven Gnaissara Maha Thera, Chief Incumbent of Gangaramaya Temple, Colombo, Sri Lanka

说明:

斯里兰卡,科伦坡,Gangaramaya Temple现任首席长老Galboda Gnanissara送赠

描述

这尊佛像持无畏印(祛惧),右手向上,手指并拢,手掌朝外。手从肘部弯曲的手臂上抬起。手印也代表了安心。

在泰国的佛像雕刻中,佛冠上的火焰状饰头也很常见,但造型各不相同。据说,火焰尖顶散发着佛陀炽热的能量或爆发精神力量。9p48

外袍的下摆从披肩越过左臂和大腿直到脚部。

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品2

Standing Buddha Shakyamuni

不动立佛

Country of Origin: Cambodia 来源地:柬埔寨
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 8W x 7D x 30H (cm) 尺寸:30高、8宽、7深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

描述

这尊典型的柬埔寨立佛的调像持无畏印,也被称为消除恐惧的手势,它象征着和平、保护和消除恐惧。他穿着斗篷一样的长袍,从肩膀上垂下来,装饰精致而巧妙,上身裸露着,只有一条精致的项链和一条腰带挂在前面的腰上。

这尊站立的佛像是典型的高棉风格的佛像,其特点是宽脸、厚嘴唇和圆锥形的顶端。佛陀的两只手掌都雕刻着法轮,这是三十二相(三十二种主要的完美标志)的一部分。

第三周

历史背景

佛陀在禅思并沿着莲花步道在菩提树和阿尼迈悉娄羌塔之间踱步整整一周。8 p64

这条步道是在摩诃菩提寺的北墙边。

第四周

历史背景

佛陀在莲花塔(Ratnaghar Chaitya)禅坐和反思更高的佛法,有六种颜色从他身上放射出来——蓝、黄、红、白、橙和这五种颜色的组合。这些颜色成为了佛教旗帜的基础颜色。

这座塔位于摩诃菩提寺的西北面。

第五周

历史背景

佛陀在一棵名叫“Ajapala Nigrodha”的榕树下禅坐。2 p 42

这是位于摩诃菩提寺的东门。

第六周

Muchalinda Naga Sheltering Buddha Shakyamuni

龙王护佛式佛像

Country of Origin: India 来源地:印度
Material: Painted Stone 材质:结石漆彩
Dimensions: 34 W x 24 D x 84 (cm) 尺寸:高84、宽34、深24(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九至二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from the wife of the late Honourable Justice Mootatamby Karthigesu

购置说明:

已故尊敬的法官Mootatamby Karthigesu夫人之馈赠

描述

这尊雕像描绘的是佛陀受到蛇王沐伽林达的保护。

受蛇王保护的佛教艺术形式在柬埔寨和泰国很常见,它们在高棉帝国时期(公元802年至1432年)十分盛行。这样的释迦牟尼佛像是高棉大乘佛教传统文化的典型象征。这个雕塑的右手持施无畏印(驱散恐惧),而左手展示的是禅定印(冥思)。

这尊佛像比较罕见,因为大多数描绘蛇王保护的佛像都是持降魔印(呼唤大地认证),这尊佛像佛陀以天王姿态(放松)坐在双层的蛇王宝座上,一条腿弯曲平放在底座上(是为他折风挡雨的五头蛇王身体盘曲而成的底座),另一条腿下垂到地面上。

与其他受蛇王保护的佛像不同,这尊雕塑在佛陀的头部后面有一个红色的圆形灵气。大多数受蛇王保护的佛陀会把这个佛的头部后面的灵气描绘成一个相对较大的圆锥形灵气,从肩膀上方落在佛陀身后。

另一个不同于其他受蛇王保护的佛陀的特征是他的头发,带有希腊风格,这是犍陀罗时期(公元2 - 3年)常见的风格。

历史背景

在觉悟后的第六周,当佛陀在在沐伽林达树下禅坐时刮起狂风暴雨。名叫Muchalinda(沐伽林达)的蛇王出来,散布起它的头颈部遮挡在佛陀的头顶上,就像一顶华盖,为他遮风雨。 2 p 43, 8 p77

这是位于摩诃菩提寺的南面。

佛牙寺龙华院同类藏品

Muchalinda Naga Sheltering Buddha Shakyamuni

龙王护佛式佛像

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Wood 材质:木
Dimensions: 8W x 9D x 15H (cm) 尺寸:15高、8宽、9深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Thai Minister

说明:

已故泰国部长馈赠

描述

这个作品描绘的是佛陀受到蛇王沐伽林达的保护。沐伽林达,多头的蛇王保护佛陀在禅坐时不受阿修罗派来的雷电和恶魔的干扰。不同于其他佛教艺术形式表现的沐伽林达,这里的沐伽林达只有一个头,而不同的表现形式会有多个头(通常是七个或九个)。 佛陀坐在沐伽林达盘曲的身体上,持禅定(冥想)手印。

第七周

历史背景

佛陀在剌伽特纳树下禅坐以获得更高的觉悟。这个地方在摩诃菩提寺的东南面。

一周结束时,两个商人塔布苏和布利卡走到他面前,向他献上了觉悟以后的第一餐。 这两个商人成为佛陀的第一批信徒。1 c24; 2 p44据说佛陀把他的几根头发给了他的两个弟子。这两个商人(最终成为门徒)把他们带回自己的国家建造了佛塔。

目前,这些文物被珍藏在缅甸仰光著名的大金塔中。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  5. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  6. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  7. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  8. Awakenings in Bodhgaya, Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, 2010
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Carol Stratton, Buddhist Sculpture of Northern Thailand, 2004, ISBN 13: 9781932476095

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: Seven Weeks After Enlightenment

The First Sermon


Artefact

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Pakistan (Gandharan) 来源地:巴基斯坦(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 17 ¾ inch (45cm) high 尺寸:高45(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 4th CE 时期:公元二至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie's ‘Arts of India’ Auction, London, 12 June 2018, Sale No.15504 as lot 2 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得 “印度艺术品” 拍卖会,伦敦,2018年7月 12日、售号15504、第2批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

This Gandharan figure is an early iconic representation of the Buddha, as the Foremost Teacher of the Dharma. The gesture of His Hands displaying the Dharmacakra (turning-the-wheel-of-law) mudra is symbolic of His First Sermon, setting the Dharma Wheel in motion.5 fig60, p292

The Dharmachakra mudra is formed when the thumb and index finger of both the hands touch at their tips to form a circle. This particular circle symbolizes the Wheel of Dharma.3 p31

The three remaining fingers of both hands remain extended and they have their own symbolic importance: The middle finger of the right hand represents the 'hearers' of the Teachings of the Buddha, the ring finger represents the 'realizers’ of the Teachings and the little finger represents the Mahayana or 'The Great Vehicle’.

Similarly, the three extended fingers of the left hand represent the Three Jewels of the Buddhism. They are: the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha. As the gesture is performed with the hands held in front of the chest, the Dharmachakra mudra convey the meaning that the Teachings are straight from the Buddha's heart.

While He sits in Dhyanasana (meditation) posture on a Padmasana (lotus throne), His legs are in a seated position, where the soles of the feet are facing upwards.

Following His Enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, the Buddha went to the Deer Park, near Sarnath and preached His First Sermon on the Four Noble Truths to the five ascetics, who then went forth and ordained as the first Buddhist monks, establishing the Sangha in the process.

This grey schist figure of Shakyamuni Buddha is in mint condition, and the delicate voluminous folds of His robe, elongated ear lopes, Urna (a tuft of hair in between His eyebrows) on His forehead, well-defined musculature, well-kempt and curly hair the forms Ushnisha (topknot protuberance) and deep-concentration look are based on the 112 marks of a Great Man (see The Forecast 预言).

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Pala Empire 来源地:帕拉帝国
Material: Black Stone 材质:黑石
Dimensions: 39W x 22D x 52H (cm) 尺寸:高52、宽39、深22(厘米)
Period: 10th CE to 11th CE 时期:公元十至十一世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Sotheby's ‘Fine Chinese Ceramics & Works of Art,’ Auction, New York, 11 Sept 2012, Sale No.8872 as lot 114 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得 “陶瓷艺术品” 拍卖会,纽约,2012年9月 11日、售号8872、第114批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

Deeply carved, depicting a crowned Buddha at the centre clad in a finely draped sanghati, His now abraded palms held before Him in Dharmachakra mudra, seated on a lotus pedestal beneath a canopy bearing mangoes.

Flanked by a pair of standing Buddhas at His sides, kneeling celestials above and donor figures below, the scene set within a heavily ornamented scalloped pillared arch, its circumference decorated with a foliate scroll of a Makara (Zodiac sign Capricorn), the upper register of the relief bearing three diminutive seated Buddhas.

The depiction of the Buddha as a crowned figure (Mukutadharin) gained popularity during the Pala period. The form was meant to emphasize His role as a Chakravartin or Universal Sovereign.

The two standing Buddhas on either side of the central seated figure represent events related in the Buddhist Canon. The figure displaying Varada mudra on the left represents Sakyamuni’s descent from the Trayatrimsa heaven, while the figure to the right displaying Abhaya mudra, most likely represents Sakyamuni’s taming of the elephant Nalagir.

Buddhas on the upper register represents Maravijaya, the moment of Enlightenment and he is flanked by two Buddha figures holding bowls, signifying the monkey’s gift of honey to the Buddha.

Historical Background

Since He not only comprehends but also expounds the doctrine and enlightens others, He is called a Sammā Sambuddha – a Fully Enlightened One – to distinguish Him from Pacceka (Individual) Buddhas, who only comprehend he doctrine but are incapable of enlightening others.

Having decided to proclaim the Dhamma for the benefit of men and gods, the Buddha reflected on people who should be His first listeners. It occurred to Him that it was nothing but right to share His Teaching first with Alara Kalama, His former guru in spiritual search.1 c26, 7 c5, 8 c4

“He will understand this profound Teaching if I were to teach him first,” the Buddha thought. Then He came to know with Dibbachakkhu (His Divine Eye) that He had expired one week back.2 p46

Next, He thought of Uddaka Ramaputta as the suitable listener, but found out he had, unfortunately, died the night before.

As the third alternative, He thought of the Five Ascetics, who kept company and attended to His needs, during the time He practiced self-mortification. They were still practicing as a group, at Rishipattana or Isipatana Deer Park, near Varanasi or Benaras.3 p93

Therefore, He decided to visit them and teach His Dhamma to the Five Ascetics.

As Buddha neared the forest of Sarnath, one of the five ascetics, Aàhvajit saw Him walking toward the forest they were in. He ran back to his four companions and announced the news.

They all agreed that they would not receive Him with respect and not stand up when He came because Siddhartha had broken His practice vow when they parted ways and left the path of asceticism. Nevertheless, in spite of their decision, when Buddha approached them, they spontaneously stood up in greeting. They could not help it.2 p47

One of His old disciples fetched water, as was the Indian custom, so Buddha might wash His hands and feet. One fetched a stool so He could sit. Another took Buddha's begging bowl. They all attended to Him. The splendour of His presence was so evident that they could not resist Him.

Then the Buddha delivered His first ever Sermon. The Sermon is recorded in the Vinaya text Mahavaggapali, and respectfully recited as ‘Dhammacakka-ppavattana Sutta’ everywhere in the Buddhist world. It explains how futile it is to practice extremes, and the way to attain the Four Noble Truths.1 c26, 2 p49, 7 c6, 8 c4

At the end of the Sermon, Kondanna attained the first stage of the Path, the Sotapannahood. As he was the first ever disciple to attain any stage of sanctification in the Buddha’s missionary career, he is called Anna Kondanna (Kondanna, the Attainer).

Over the next two days, the Buddha divided the five ascetics into two groups. The group of two went on alms-search the first day during which time the Buddha instructed the remaining three. On the next day, the group of three went out for bringing alms, while the Buddha instructed the group of two. Having been instructed this way they all attained Sotapannahood and were ready for further instruction.2 p49

The Buddha then addressed all five of them together and delivered Anattalakkhana Sutta. On the hearing of that Sermon, which explains soullessness, all the five ascetics attained Arahanthood.

Eventually, the Five Ascetics formed the first Sangha. Hence, the first formation of the Triple Gems (Buddha, Dharma, Sangha) was completed.

BTRTM Similar Artefact 1

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Brass 材质:黄铜
Dimensions: 34W x 20D x 50H (cm) 尺寸:50高、34宽、20深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven. Chao Kun Fa ZhaoBBM

购置说明:

展品本是昭坤法照BBM送赠

Description

The Buddha is seated and his hands are held in front of his upper torso with the thumbs and index fingers of both hands touching to form wheels, the other fingers lightly curled but leaving the palms showing, and the right hand placed above the left. This gesture is known as the Dharmachakra (turning-the-wheel-of-law) mudra.

The three extended fingers of the right hand represent the three vehicles of the Buddha's teachings, namely:

  1. 1) The middle finger represents the 'hearers' of the Teachings;
  2. 2) The ring finger represents the 'solitary realizers'; and
  3. 3) The Little finger represents the Mahayana or 'Great Vehicle'.

The three extended fingers of the left hand symbolize the Three Jewels of Buddhism, namely, the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

BTRTM Similar Artefact 2

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Copper 材质:铜
Dimensions: 10.5W x 5.5D x 20.5H (cm) 尺寸:20.5高、10.5宽、5.5深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Maha Chulalongkorn Raja University

购置说明:

展品本是 Maha Chulalongkorn Raja 大学送赠

Description

Similar to the ‘Buddha Preaching the First Sermon’ sculpture made during the Gupta empire (320 BCE – 500 BCE) which is located in the Sarnath museum, this sculpture has a circular nimbus with two flying celestial figures, behind the head of the Buddha.

Under the Gupta Empire, artists formulated what became the canonical image of the Buddha, combining the Gandharan monastic robe covering both shoulders with the Mathuran tradition of soft, full-bodied Buddha figures dressed in clinging garments. These disparate styles beautifully merge in this fifth-century statue of the Buddha from Sarnath. The statue’s smooth, unadorned surfaces conform to the Indian notion of perfect body form and emphasize the figure’s spirituality.

The Buddha is seated cross-legged with both of the soles pointing upwards on a throne (with lions at opposite ends), and his hands are held in front of his lower torso with the thumbs and index fingers of both hands touching to form wheels, displaying the Dharmachakra mudra (turning-the-wheel-of-law) mudra.

Below the Buddha is a scene with the wheel (symbolising the Wheel of the Law) at the centre, between three disciples on each side, with two deer at the bottom (symbolising the Deer Park at Sarnath). The lower scene is slightly different with one from Sarnath museum, as it shows the wheel flanked by a mother and child on one side. Buddha images such as this one became so popular that temples housing Buddha statues have displaced the stupa as the norm in Buddhist sacred architecture.

BTRTM Similar Artefact 3

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: China, commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

购置说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Description

This gold leaf on copper panel is the initial trial panel of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple. This was crafted by Shanghai Kangyu Enterprise.

The scene of ‘The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel’ is elaborated with the vivid depictions of Buddha Shakyamuni spotted in Abhya (Fear-dispelling) mudra, surrounded by the Five Ascetics, against the backdrop of the Deer Park at Sarnath.

Ven. Chao Khun Fa ZhaoBBM's Pilgrimage to Sarnath, India


In 2007, the chief Abbott of Buddha Tooth Relic Temple (Singapore) Ven. Chao Khun Fa ZhaoBBM went on a pilgrimage to Sarnath, India.

Located 12km northeast from Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, Sarnath remains as one of the most revered pilgrimage centres. It is believed that after attaining Enlightenment at Bodhgaya, it was here at Sarnath, where the Lord Buddha preached His First Sermon (Middle Way to Nirvana), sanctified as Maha Dharma Chakra Parivartan.

Sarnath contains some of the more remarkable stupas, such as the Great Dhamekha Stupa.

This is the most conspicuous structure at Sarnath. Colonel Cunningham bore a shaft from the top centre of the stupa and discovered a stone tablet on which an inscription is written with the word Dhamekha, and mentions that this is the spot where the Buddha delivered His First Sermon.

Dhamekha seems to be a distorted form of Dharma Chakra, which means turning the wheel of the Dharma. It is believed the Five Ascetics, after leaving Lord Buddha, used to live in this spot in Sarnath.

The original stupa was believed to be constructed by Emperor Ashoka, to propagate the Teachings of Lord Buddha all over India. The present size of the stupa is 31.3 m high and 28.3 m in diameter. The lower portion of the stupa is covered completely with beautifully carved stones. The design consists of a broad band of Swastika (fylfot) carved in different geometrical patterns with a finely chiselled lotus wreath, running over and below the swastikas.

The pillar by Emperor Ashoka (273-232 BCE), that marks the foundation of the Buddhist Sangha is also located here (alongside numerous stupas and monasteries), and the Lion Capital atop this pillar is now India's National Emblem.

The Chaukhandi Stupa marks the place where the Buddha met his first five disciples, which are the five Pañcavaggiya monks, who left him in Bodhgaya before His Enlightenment. It was also here that the Buddha first preached the Dharma to His five disciples and, started the “Wheel of Dharma”.

The first sutta that Lord Buddha taught was Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. But there are other different suttas that were preached by Lord Buddha in Deer Park, such as the Anattalakkhana Sutta and the Saccavibhanga Sutta. He also preached about the Middle Way, the Four Noble Truths and also prescribed the Eight-fold Path.

Sarnath was previously known as Mrigadava, or “Deer Park”. Saranth is also known as Isipatana, meaning the place where holy men fell to earth. The name is based upon the legend that when the Buddha was born, devas came down to announce His birth to five hundred holy men. The holy men all rose into the air and disappeared, with their relics falling to the ground.

The current name Sarnath means "Lord of the Deer", and relates to another old Buddhist story in which the Bodhisattva was a deer who offered his life to a king, instead of the doe he was planning to kill. The king was so moved that he created the park as a sanctuary for the deer.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  8. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The First Five Monks
  2. Life of Buddha: The Buddha's First Teaching
  3. Sarnath - The First Teachings
  4. Sarnath Pillar Stupa Museum and Tourism Information
  5. Incredible India | Sarnath

初转法轮


工艺品

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Pakistan (Gandharan) 来源地:巴基斯坦(曼陀罗)
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 17 ¾ inch (45cm) high 尺寸:高45(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 4th CE 时期:公元二至四世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie's ‘Arts of India’ Auction, London, 12 June 2018, Sale No.15504 as lot 2 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得 “印度艺术品” 拍卖会,伦敦,2018年7月 12日、售号15504、第2批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

这尊犍陀罗时期的佛像是佛陀早期的标志性代表,佛陀是佛法转播的导师。他手持说法印(转动法轮)象征着第一次传道,初转法轮。5 fig60, p292

说法印是以拇指与食指相捻,指尖接触形成一个圆圈。这个圆圈象征着法轮。3 p31

双手剩下的三根手指舒展开来,每根手指都有象征意义:右手的中指代表佛陀教诲的“听众”,无名指代表佛陀教诲的“感悟者”,小指代表大乘佛教“伟大的佛法”。

同样的,左手伸出的三根手指代表着佛教的三宝。它们是:佛、法、僧。当双手放在胸前做这个手势时,手印传达出的意思是,佛法是发自佛陀的内心。

当他在莲花座上坐禅时,他的腿是处于坐姿,脚底向上。

在菩提伽耶开悟之后,佛陀前往鹿野苑附近的鹿园,找到了原先的五位随行者,为他们讲解四圣谛, 这五位随行者成为佛陀的第一批弟子,并在这过程中成立了僧团。

这尊灰色片岩的释迦牟尼佛雕像是暂新的,他的长袍上布满大量细腻的褶皱,细长的耳朵,眉间有白毫(两眉之间的一簇白发),明确的肌肉组织,整齐卷曲的头发直到头顶肉髻,全神贯注的目光,这些都是根据伟人的112个体态特征描绘出来的(见The Forecast 预言

工艺品

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Pala Empire 来源地:帕拉帝国
Material: Black Stone 材质:黑石
Dimensions: 39W x 22D x 52H (cm) 尺寸:高52、宽39、深22(厘米)
Period: 10th CE to 11th CE 时期:公元十至十一世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Sotheby's ‘Fine Chinese Ceramics & Works of Art,’ Auction, New York, 11 Sept 2012, Sale No.8872 as lot 114 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得 “陶瓷艺术品” 拍卖会,纽约,2012年9月 11日、售号8872、第114批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

在这幅深雕作品的中心描绘了一位戴王冠的佛陀,身披精美僧衣,他的手掌在被磨损之前,应该持说法印,坐在华盖下面供奉着芒果的莲花宝座上。

在他两侧有一对站立的佛陀,上方有跪着的天神,下面是供养的场景。整个画面由布满贝壳装饰的拱门组成,拱门的周边装饰着马卡拉海龙。工艺品的上部有三尊小的坐佛像。

在波罗王朝,佛陀普遍被描绘成戴王冠的形象(Mukutadharin)。代表他转轮王或宇宙王者的形象。

在中央坐像两侧的两尊立佛代表了佛教经典中相关的事件。左边的持慈悲手印的释迦牟尼,代表他从忉利天(第二层天)下来;而右手边的佛陀施无畏印,很可能代表被释迦牟尼驯服的那拉吉尔象。

在上方的佛像代表佛陀战胜天魔后开悟,他两侧是两个手里持碗的佛像,代表着猴子向佛陀进献蜂蜜。

历史背景

佛陀不仅自己开悟,还能教导他人,他被人称为正觉者 —— 大圆满的正觉者,这与辟支佛不同,辟支佛只能自己觉悟但却无法感悟别人。

当佛陀决心为造福神和人而去传播佛法时,佛陀便在他的第一批弟子身上进行反思。他意识到他应该先跟他曾经的导师阿罗逻伽蓝分享他所觉悟到的佛法。1 c26, 7 c5, 8 c4

佛陀想着:“如果我先传法于他,他将会了解这深刻的教导。”但他从Dibbachakkhu(他的天眼)那里得知阿罗逻伽蓝已经去世一周了。2 p46

接着,他想到乌达卡·罗摩普塔(Uddaka Ramaputta)是合适的听众,但不幸的是,乌达卡·罗摩普塔在前一天的晚上去世了。

作为第三种选择,他想到了五个苦行者,他们在佛陀苦行期间陪伴并照顾他。他们仍然在瓦拉纳西附近的鹿野苑集体修行。3 p93

于是,佛陀决定去拜访他们,向五位苦行者传授他的佛法。

当佛陀走到鹿野苑附近的树林时,五个苦行僧之一的 Aàhvajit阿说示看到了佛陀,他跑回去告诉同伴这个消息。

他们一致决定不理睬他,也不会在他来的时候站起来,因为悉达多曾经在一起苦行时违背修行法则,离开了他们。 但是,尽管他们这样决定,当佛陀到来时他们都不由自主地站起来跟佛陀打招呼。2 p47

佛陀的一个老信徒去提水,按照印度的习俗,佛陀要用水洗手和脚。一个信徒去拿椅子让他坐下。另外的信徒接过了佛陀的乞钵。他们全部都在招待佛陀。佛陀的光辉如此显耀,以至于他们全都无法抗拒他。

接着,佛陀有了有生以来的第一次布道。这篇训诫被记录在《毗奈耶》的《摩诃梵伽毗利》中,并在佛教世界中被尊称为《转法轮经》。它解释了极端的苦行是徒劳的,以及怎样才能开示四圣谛。1 c26, 2 p49, 7 c6, 8 c4

在布道的尾声,憍陈如第一个开悟,因而他成为了佛陀的第一个弟子,得名阿若憍陈如。

在之后的两天里,佛陀把五位苦行者分成了两组。第一天第一组的两个人去托钵,佛陀教导留下的三人。第二天,三个人去托钵,而佛陀教导留下的二人。 在受到佛陀的教导后,他们全部悟道,并且做好了更深修行的准备。2 p49

随后,佛陀将五人聚齐,宣讲了《无我相经》。在听了这篇解释无我的布道后,五位苦行者都修成了阿罗汉。

最后,这五位苦行者成为了第一组僧伽。至此,三宝(佛、法、僧)首次圆满。

佛牙寺龙华院同类藏品1

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Brass 材质:黄铜
Dimensions: 34W x 20D x 50H (cm) 尺寸:50高、34宽、20深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Ven. Chao Kun Fa ZhaoBBM

购置说明:

展品本是昭坤法照BBM送赠

描述

佛陀端坐,双手握在身前,两只手的拇指和食指相捻形成法轮形,其他手指微张,手掌露出来,右手放在左手上边。这个手势被称为“法轮印”。

右手伸出三个手指分别代表佛陀传法教义的三个载体,即:

  1. 右手的中指代表佛陀教义的“听众”,
  2. 食指代表佛陀教义的“感悟者”,
  3. 小指代表大乘佛教“伟大的佛法”。

佛牙寺龙华院同类藏品2

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Copper 材质:铜
Dimensions: 10.5W x 5.5D x 20.5H (cm) 尺寸:20.5高、10.5宽、5.5深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Gift from Maha Chulalongkorn Raja University

购置说明:

展品本是 Maha Chulalongkorn Raja 大学送赠

描述

与存放在鹿野苑(萨尔纳特)博物馆的“佛陀初转法轮”藏品(公元前320年-公元前500年)相似,这尊佛像头部后面有圆形光晕,上面有两个飞天。

在笈多王朝,艺术家们设计出了后来成为正统的佛陀形象,将犍陀罗风格的覆盖双肩的层叠僧袍与体态柔美的马图拉艺术风格的佛像结合在一起。这些不同的风格在这尊来自鹿野苑的五世纪佛像中完美地融合在一起。雕像光滑、朴实的表面符合印度文化对完美形体的定义,凸显了人物的灵性。

佛陀盘腿坐在莲花宝座上,双脚脚底向上。双手在腿的上方呈现拇指和食指相捻而成的法轮形状,持法轮手印。

在佛陀身下方的场景,是由法轮在中间(象征佛法法轮)和两边各有三个弟子和下方的鹿(象征着鹿野苑)所组成。这一场景与鹿野苑博物馆的藏品略有不同,因为它展示的法轮一侧有一对母子。这类的佛像变得很受欢迎,甚至在寺庙中取代了佛塔,成为佛教神圣建筑的代表。

佛牙寺龙华院同类藏品3

The First Turning of the Dharma Wheel

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: China, commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

购置说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Description

这幅镀金铜板放置于佛牙寺龙华院四楼的佛牙舍利塔座下方, 描绘了释迦摩尼佛人生八个阶段的其中一个阶段。 该复制品由上海康宇集团制作。

在“初转法轮”场景中,释迦摩尼佛持无畏印坐在鹿野苑中,五位苦行者绕着他。

昭坤释法照法师BBM前往印度鹿野苑朝圣


在2007年,佛牙寺龙华院(新加坡)的住持,昭坤释法照法师BBM前往印度的鹿野苑朝圣。

萨尔纳特(鹿野苑)是世界上最受尊崇的佛教朝圣中心之一,位于北方邦瓦拉纳西东北12公里处。据说,在菩提伽耶开悟后,佛陀在这里发布了第一次布道,这次布道被尊为马哈·法轮·普拉瓦坦(Maha Dharma Chakra Parivartan)。

鹿野苑有几座特别著名的佛塔,如伟大的答美克佛塔(Dhamekha Stupa)。

这是鹿野苑最著名的佛塔。坎宁安上校(Colonel Cunningham)从佛塔的顶部中心凿竖井时,发现了一块石碑,上面写着“答美克(Dhamekha)”一词,他指出这里是佛陀第一次布道的地方。

Dhamekha这一词似乎是从法轮(Dharma Chakra)这一词转化而来,意思是转动法轮。据说,五名苦行僧离开佛陀后都住在鹿野苑。

最初的佛塔被认为是由阿育王建造的,在印度传播佛法教义。现存的佛塔高31.3米,直径28.3米。佛塔的下部覆盖着雕刻精美的石头。图案由精美的莲花和万字符(卐)环环相扣。

建于阿索卡王朝的(公元前272年-公元前232年)的石柱,也坐落在此(在众多佛塔之中),这根石柱标志着佛教僧伽建立。石柱上的狮子图案也出现在印度的国徽上。

乔堪祗塔(Chaukhandi Stupa)是佛陀遇到他首五名弟子的地方,这五位比丘在佛陀开悟之前离开了佛陀留在菩提迦耶。也是在这里,佛陀第一次向他的五位弟子布道,初转法轮。

佛陀所转授的第一本佛经是《转法轮经》。但是在鹿野苑他还传授了其他不同的经,如《无我相经》和《谛分别经》。他还宣扬中道、四圣谛和八正道。

鹿野苑(萨尔纳特)以前被称为Mrigadava,或“鹿园”。鹿野苑也被称为Isipatana,意思是圣人降临的地方。这个名字来源于佛陀出生时的传说,提婆下来向五百名圣人宣布他的诞生。所有的圣人都升到空中消失了,他们的舍利子也掉落到地上。

现在的名字Sarnath的意思是“鹿之王”,与另一个古老的佛教故事有关,在这个故事中佛陀是一只鹿,他将自己的生命献给了一位国王,而不是国王原先计划杀死的那只母鹿。国王非常感动,他建造了这个公园作为鹿的避难所。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Lalitavistara ‘The Play in Full’, Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee, 2013
  2. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  3. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  4. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  8. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The First Five Monks
  2. Life of Buddha: The Buddha's First Teaching
  3. Sarnath - The First Teachings
  4. Sarnath Pillar Stupa Museum and Tourism Information
  5. Incredible India | Sarnath

Spreading Dharma


Artefact

Seated Buddha Shakyamuni

释迦牟尼佛

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 43W x 28D x 48H (cm) 尺寸:高48、宽43、深28(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from the late Honourable Justice Mootatamby Karthigesu to BTRTM

购置说明:

已故尊敬的法官Mootatamby Karthigesu之馈赠

Description

This is a U-Thong (12 CE to 15 CE) style sculpture of Buddha Shakyamuni, with His right hand in Abhaya gesture. The Abhaya (Fearlessness) mudra is indicated by raising His right hand, palm facing outward in front of His chest. The mudra further symbolises reassurance and safety, which dispels fear and accords divine protection and bliss in many Buddhist regions.

U-Thong art-style is a fusion of different styles, such as Khmer or Lopburi, and Sukhothai styles, which sprouted in the southern capital of Ayutthaya in Thailand (formerly known as Siam). Hence, traces of other styles can be seen in detail as follows: The Buddha with traces of gold paint, is seated on a royal throne, marked by the flag cascading down the front of the throne.

On the four-tiered throne, a multitude of devotees or the Buddha’s disciples can be seen in kneeling posture, with their palms together, listening to the Dharma Teachings with reverence.

A Dharma wheel flanked by two sitting deer can be seen on the back of the Buddha, symbolizing the First Sermon of Buddha (see The First Sermon 初转法轮) at Mrgadava, Sarnath, which is also known as “Deer Park”. While the presence of this wheel on the back of the Buddha does not necessary depict the actual event of Buddha’s first discourse in Sarnath, it is symbolic of the Buddha’s Teachings to His disciples.

Historical Background

After Buddha Shakyamuni’s First Sermon, He continued to give sermons for 49 years.2 p23, 7 c7

Growth of Dispensation

  1. First 60 Arahants and Mission1 p49, 7 c7, 8 c5, p59

    A millionaire son called Yasa was disgusted at the sight of female attendants and musicians asleep in repulsive attitudes, left home saying, “Distressed am I, oppressed am I” and went in the direction of Isipatana.

    He met the Buddha who told him “Here, there is no distress, there is no oppression.” He heard the dhamma and attained 1st stage of sainthood.

    Yasa’s mother discovered the disappearance of the son and told the father. Yasa’s father searched for the son and met the Buddha. The father heard the Dhamma and took refuge in Triple Gems (1st lay disciple who took the 3-fold formula).

    Yasa on hearing the discourse delivered to his father attained arahantship. Buddha let the father see his son.

    The father invited the Buddha and his disciples for alms on the following day. Yasa was ordained and conferred the Higher Ordination.

    After their meal, Yasa’s mother and his former wife heard the doctrine expounded by the Buddha and attained 1st stage of Sainthood (1st 2 lay female followers).

    Yasa’s 54 friends joined Yasa and after receiving instructions from the Buddha attained arahantship.

    Now the Buddha had 60 disciples, all arahants who had realised the Dhamma and were full competent to teach others. When the rainy season ended, Buddha sent the 60 arahants in various directions to preach the dhamma for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, benefit and happiness of gods and men.

    He addressed his immediate disciples with these words:

    “Released am I, monks. From all ties whether human or divine. You also are delivered from all fetters whether human or divine. Go now and wander for the welfare and happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the gain, welfare, and happiness of gods and men. Let not two of you proceed in the same direction… I also shall go to Uruvela, to Senanagama, to teach the Dhamma.”
  2. Conversion of 30 young men at Uruvela1 p51

    1 without wife brought a courtesan who absconded their valuables. In search of the courtesan, the men met Buddha and heard His discourse and soon entered the Order.

  3. Conversion of 3 Kassapa brothers - Uruvela Kassapa, Nadῑ Kassapa and Gayā Kassapa, living separately with 500, 300 and 200 disciples respectively

    Buddha subdued the serpent and this pleased Uruvela Kassapa who then invited Buddha to stay as a guest. Buddha exhibited his psychic power to impress the ascetic and finally convinced him.

    Uruvela Kassapa and his followers entered the Order and obtained the Highest Ordination. His brothers and followers also followed suit. Buddha preached the Dittapariyāya Sutta (All in Flames) and the 3 Kassapa brothers attained Arahantship.

  4. Conversion of Sāriputta and Moggallāna – 2 chief disciples of the Buddha1 p53

    Sāriputta and Moggallāna were very intimate friends who decided to leave the world and seek the Path of Release. They approached many famous Brahmins but they did not provide them the Path of Release.

    Finally, they returned to their village and made a pact with each other to that whoever would first discover the Path should inform the other.

    One day, Upatissa Sāriputta met Ven. Assaji and upon Upatissa’s request to preach little or much, uttered the 4 lines stanza:

    “Of things that proceed from a cause, Their cause the Tathāgata be told,
    And also their cessation; Thus teaches the Great Ascetic.”

    On hearing the first two lines, he attained 1st stage of Sainthood. He returned to inform his friend Kolita, who also attained 1st stage of Sainthood, on hearing the whole stanza.

    They approached their former teacher Sanjaya, to convert him and failed. However 500 disciples of Sanjaya followed them to see the Buddha and half way 250 returned to Sanjaya, while the rest joined the Order.

    One week after ordination, Moggallāna attained arahatship. A fortnight later after ordination, Sāriputta attained Arahantship, upon hearing the Buddha expounded Vedanā Pariggaha Sutta, to the wandering ascetic Dῑghamakha.

BTRTM Similar Artefact

Spreading the Dharma

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: China, commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

购置说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Description

This gold leaf on copper panel is the initial trial panel of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple. This was crafted by Shanghai Kangyu Enterprise.

The scene of ‘Spreading the Dharma’ is elaborated with the vivid depictions of Buddha Shakyamuni spotted in Dharmachakra mudra (turning the Wheel of the Law) mudra, surrounded by numerous disciples, against the backdrop of the Bodhi Tree.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  3. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  4. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  8. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: Six Years of Searching

传播佛法


工艺品

Seated Buddha Shakyamuni

释迦牟尼佛

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Bronze 材质:铜
Dimensions: 43W x 28D x 48H (cm) 尺寸:高48、宽43、深28(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Gift from the late Honourable Justice Mootatamby Karthigesu to BTRTM

购置说明:

已故尊敬的法官Mootatamby Karthigesu之馈赠

描述

这是一尊乌通时期(公元12年到公元15年)风格的释迦牟尼佛雕塑,他的右手持施无畏印。施无畏印的手印是表现在他举起的右手,手掌在胸前向外。在许多佛教地区,手印也象征着安心和安全,消除恐惧,给予神圣的保护和幸福。

乌通艺术风格融合了各种不同的艺术风格,如高棉或华富里和素可泰风格等, 起源于泰国(以前称为暹罗)南部阿瑜陀耶王国的首都。 因此,一些细节上可以看到其他风格的痕迹:佛塑金身,坐在皇家宝座上,宝座前有旗帜如瀑布般垂下。

在四层的宝座上,可以看到许多信徒或佛的弟子跪着,双手合十,虔诚地聆听佛法教导。

佛像背后有法轮,两侧坐着两只鹿,象征着佛陀第一次在萨纳特的鹿野苑传道(参考 The First Sermon 初转法轮),也被称为“鹿苑”。虽然佛陀身后有法轮并不一定代表这是描述他第一次在鹿野苑传道的场景,但是这代表了佛陀对弟子的传道。

历史背景

释迦牟尼佛经过第一次传道之后,在下来49年里他一直都在传播佛法。2 p23, 7 c7

传道团的成长

  1. 首六十位阿罗汉和使命1 p49, 7 c7, 8 c5, p59

    耶舍是百万富翁的儿子,他看到家中侍女与乐者怪异的睡觉姿态后感到厌恶,他说道:“我感到痛苦,我感到压抑。”然后离开了家朝向着鹿野苑的方向走去。

    他遇见了佛陀,佛陀告诉他:“在这里没有痛苦,没有压迫。”他听了佛法并成为佛陀的第一批弟子。

    耶舍的母亲发现了儿子的离去,并告诉了父亲。耶舍的父亲寻找儿子,遇到了佛陀。他的父亲听了佛法,皈依了三宝( 皈依三宝的第一位在家居士)

    耶舍在听闻专递给父亲的话语后得到了阿罗汉果位。佛陀让父亲见了他的儿子。

    父亲邀请佛陀和他的弟子们第二天到他家里接受供养用餐,耶舍被任命为更高的圣职。

    用餐过后,耶舍的母亲和他的前妻听了佛陀的教义后,成为了佛陀的第一批弟子(首两位女居士)

    耶舍的54位朋友加入耶舍并在听了佛法后也得到了阿罗汉果位。

    于是佛陀有了60位弟子,都是已经领悟佛法并完全有能力教导别人的阿罗汉。雨季结束后,怀着对世界的慈悲,普渡众生,造福众神和众人,佛陀派60位阿罗汉到各个方向去传扬佛法。

  2. 菩提迦耶三十人得法1 p51

    一位单身汉带来一个妓女,妓女偷走了他的贵重物品潜逃了。在寻找妓女的路上,这个人遇到了佛陀,听了佛陀的传道,立刻出家。

  3. 度化迦叶三兄弟,优楼毗螺迦叶(Uruvela、Kassapa),那提迦叶(Nādī、Kassapa),伽耶迦叶(Gāyā、kassapa),分别有五百,三百和二百多追随苦行者。

    佛陀降伏了巨蛇使优楼毗螺迦叶高兴,优楼毗螺迦叶随后邀请佛陀在家过夜。佛陀展示的精神力量打动了修行者,并最终度化了他。

    优楼毗螺迦叶和他的信徒们请求出家,受具足戒,他的兄弟们和兄弟们的信徒们也跟随出家,受具足戒。佛陀宣讲了《燃烧经》,迦叶三兄弟修成阿罗汉。

  4. 度化舍利弗和目犍连 —— 二位大弟子1 p53

    舍利弗(Sāriputta)和目犍连(Moggallāna)是非常亲密的朋友,他们决定离开俗世修行。他们接触了很多有名的婆罗门,但都没有给他们解脱之路。

    最终,他们回到了自己的村庄,彼此约定,谁最先找到解脱之路,都要告知对方。

    一日,舍利弗遇到尊者阿说示,在舍利弗的询问下,阿说示说了四句话:

    “诸法从因生,如来说了它们的因,也说了它们的灭。这位伟大的沙门是这样说的”

    当听到前两句,舍利弗就初证圣果了。他回去见目犍连,在听完整个经过后,目犍连也初证圣果了。

    他们来到曾经跟随修行的导师珊阇耶(Sajjaya),想要感悟他但失败了。然而,500名珊阇耶的门徒跟着他们去见佛陀,其中二百五十位返回追随珊阇耶,其余人追随了佛陀。

    受戒一周后,目犍连修成阿罗汉。舍利弗受戒后,听闻佛陀讲经,共花了14天修成阿罗汉。

佛牙寺龙华院相似藏品

Spreading the Dharma

释迦牟尼佛的初转法轮

Country of Origin: China, commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

购置说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

描述

这幅镀金铜板放置于佛牙寺龙华院四楼的佛牙舍利塔座下方, 描绘了释迦摩尼佛人生八个阶段的其中一个阶段。 该复制品由上海康宇集团制作。

通过对释迦摩尼佛的生动描绘来表现”初转法轮“的场景,在菩提树的背景下,众多的弟子围绕着他。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  3. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  4. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  8. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: Six Years of Searching

Twin Miracles of Sravasti

Artefact

Buddha Shakyamuni Performing the Twin Miracles of Sravasti

舍卫城的双神迹

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:曼陀罗
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 28W x 13D x 78.5H (cm) 尺寸:高78.5、宽28、深13(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockerfeller Plaza, 12 September 2012, Sale No. 2578 as lot 507 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会、纽约、洛克菲勒、 2012年 9月 12日、售2578、第507批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

Description

This exquisite sculpture of Buddha Shakyamuni performing Yamaka-patihariya (Twin Miracles of Fire and Water) at Sravasti, depicts the Buddha standing upright on a pedestal, with a slightly chipped Prabhamandala (aureole) behind His head.

This rare representation of Buddha with fire and water emanating from His body refers to the first of a series of miracles He performed at Sravasti, confounding His critics.4 fig 37, 5 fig 107

The sculpture encapsulates this event, celebrating the virtue of the Buddha's Teachings, in contrast to the philosophies of the Vedic Kasyapas.

Fire emanates upwards from His shoulders, while water sprouts forth from His toes. He is dressed in the robes of an ordained person shown in voluminous cascading folds. His left-hand grasps one end of His robes, while His right hand (missing) most likely displays the Abhaya or fearless mudra.

His hair, reflective of the folds of His Sanghati, is neatly combed up into a topknot, forming wavy lines starting from the centre of His forehead and ending in His Ushnisha. He has slightly pursed lips, forming a subtle smile with half-opened heavy-lidded eyes, a prominent chin and finely arched eyebrows.

His moderately elongated earlobes are well-defined, reaching down to the middle of His neck, although His left earlobe has abraded. Interestingly for this type of statue, the urna is not depicted.

Historical Background

It was in Sravasti that the Buddha performed the only miracle, in response to a challenge from 6 non-believers. The Buddha levitated on a thousand petalled lotus, causing fire and water to leap out of his body and multiplied his person in the air.1 p54, 2 p124, 3 fig 122, 4 fig 37, 5 p123

The Kasyapas, leaders of India's six prevailing philosophical schools, invited him to a contest of miraculous powers believing they could demonstrate his inferiority. Buddha's miracles, which also included allowing people to read each other's thoughts and spreading a cleansing light throughout the world, resulted in the conversion of the Kasyapas' ninety­thousand followers.

BTRTM Similar Artefact

Jambupati Shakyamuni Buddha

宝冠释迦牟尼佛

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Red Bronze 材质:红铜
Dimensions: 49W x 30D x 76H (cm) 尺寸:76高、49宽、30深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Purchased From a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Description

This is an example of the Jambupati Buddha, a special type of Burmese Buddha sculpture adorned in royal attire. This sculpture is wearing a pair of long earrings extending to His shoulders and with a pair of flange extended behind.

He is seen displaying the Bhumisphere (calling-the-earth-to-bear-witness) mudra as the Buddha attains Enlightenment and victory over Mara. This Jambupati Buddha is wearing rings on all fingers, except on the thumbs, symbolising exclusive patronage from only the queen of the royal family (note: all the Buddha’s fingers will be adorned with rings, if it is an exclusive patronage from the king).

According to 18th century Burmese accounts, the arrogant and atrocious King Jambupati refused to accept Buddha’s Teachings. Hence, Buddha transformed Himself into a magnificent king adorned in lavish royal attire that was so grand and splendid, that the King was awestruck and immediately sought Refuge in Buddha.

Yamaka-patihariya (Twin Miracles of Fire and Water) at Sravasti, depicts the Buddha standing upright on a pedestal, with a slightly chipped Prabhamandala (aureole) behind His head. Abhaya or fearless mudra. Sanghati, is neatly combed up into a topknot, forming wavy lines starting from the centre of His forehead and ending in His Ushnisha. He has slightly pursed lips, forming a subtle smile with half-opened heavy-lidded eyes, a prominent chin and finely arched eyebrows. His urna is not depicted.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  3. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  4. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt, Gandharan Buddhism, 2006, ISBN 978-0774-1081-5
  8. Dr. A. H. Dani, Gandhara Art In Pakistan, Dept of Films and Publications, Ministry of Information and Media Development, Government of Pakistan
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Incredible India | Sravasti
  2. Sravasti
  3. Buddha’s Miracles in Sravasti – Padmasambhava Buddhist Center

舍卫城的双神迹

工艺品

Buddha Shakyamuni Performing the Twin Miracles of Sravasti

舍卫城的双神迹

Country of Origin: Gandhara 来源地:曼陀罗
Material: Gray Schist 材质:灰色片岩
Dimensions: 28W x 13D x 78.5H (cm) 尺寸:高78.5、宽28、深13(厘米)
Period: 2nd CE to 3rd CE 时期:公元二至三世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Sold in Christie’s ‘Indian & Southeast Asian Art’ Auction, New York, Rockerfeller Plaza, 12 September 2012, Sale No. 2578 as lot 507 to BTRTM

购置说明:

佳士得‘印度和东南亚艺术品’ 拍卖会、纽约、洛克菲勒、 2012年 9月 12日、售2578、第507批、新加坡佛牙寺标得

描述

这尊精美的释迦牟尼佛像展现了释迦牟尼佛在舍卫城呈现双神迹(火和水的双神迹),佛陀站立在底座上,在他头后面的环形晕光略微有磨损。

这一罕见从佛陀身体散发出火和水的神迹,是他在舍卫城所呈现一系列神迹中的第一个神迹,让质疑他的人信服。4 fig 37, 5 fig 107

这尊雕像描述了这个事迹,歌颂佛陀教义的美德,与吠陀迦叶的哲学流派形成鲜明的对比。

火焰从他的肩膀向上散发, 而水从他的脚趾涌出。 他身穿受戒者的长袍,袍上有大量层叠褶皱。 他的左手握着长袍的一端,而他的右手(缺失)很有可能持施无畏印。

他的头发整齐地梳成一个顶髻,形成波浪状的线条,从他的前额中心延伸到头顶的肉髻。他嘴唇微翘,露出半开的沉重双眼,突起的下巴与精致的弓形眉毛形成微妙的微笑。

他的耳垂较长,轮廓清晰,一直延伸到脖子的中部,尽管他的左耳垂已经磨损。有趣的是,这种类型的雕像并没有描绘佛陀的白毫。

历史背景

佛陀在舍卫城完成了唯一的神迹,回应六个非信徒的挑战。佛陀悬浮在千瓣莲花上,使火和水从他的身体内散发出来,并让他的身体在空中倍增。1 p54, 2 p124, 3 fig 122, 4 fig 37, 5 p123

印度六大哲学流派的领袖卡沙巴邀请他参加一场神奇力量的较量,他们认为这样可以展现出他的卑微。佛陀的神迹,包括允许人们阅览彼此的思维,并在全世界传播一种净化之光,导致了卡沙巴的九万信徒转而皈依佛陀。

佛牙寺龙华院相似的藏品

Jambupati Shakyamuni Buddha

宝冠释迦牟尼佛

Country of Origin: Myanmar 来源地:缅甸
Material: Red Bronze 材质:红铜
Dimensions: 49W x 30D x 76H (cm) 尺寸:76高、49宽、30深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

Purchased From a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

描述

这是一尊典型的冠冕佛像,一种特殊类型有皇家服饰装饰的缅甸佛像雕塑。该雕像戴着一对长耳环延伸到他的肩膀位置,并有一对法兰延伸到佛像背后的位置。

他手持触地印(呼唤大地见证),见证佛陀成道,战胜天魔攻击。这尊冠冕佛像除了拇指之外的所有手指都佩戴戒指,象征为皇室女王的独家赞助(注:如果佛陀是国王的独家赞助,那么所有手指都会佩戴戒指)

根据18世纪缅甸的有关记载,傲慢而残暴的Jambupati国王拒绝接受佛陀的教诲。于是,佛陀将自己变成了身着华服的国王,他穿着华丽的皇室服装,宏伟而灿烂,导致国王敬畏不已,立即寻求佛陀的庇佑。

舍卫城的双神迹(火和水的双神迹),描绘佛陀站在底座上,在头后方的环形晕光略微有磨损,施无畏印。头发整齐地梳成一个顶髻,形成波浪状的线条,从他的前额中心延伸到头顶的肉髻。他嘴唇微翘,露出半开的沉重双眼,突起的下巴与精致的弓形眉毛形成微妙的微笑。他的白毫没有呈现在佛像上。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  3. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  4. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  5. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  6. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  7. Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt, Gandharan Buddhism, 2006, ISBN 978-0774-1081-5
  8. Dr. A. H. Dani, Gandhara Art In Pakistan, Dept of Films and Publications, Ministry of Information and Media Development, Government of Pakistan
  9. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  10. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Incredible India | Sravasti
  2. Sravasti
  3. Buddha’s Miracles in Sravasti – Padmasambhava Buddhist Center

Receiving Offerings

Artefact

Buddha Shakyamuni Receiving Offerings

受供养坐佛

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 49W x 91D x 124H (cm) 尺寸:高124、宽49、深91(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased From a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Description

This is a typical sculpture of Buddha Shakyamuni, from the late Ayutthaya period. Ayutthaya was a Thai kingdom, which existed from 1350 CE to 1767 CE.

The Buddha Shakyamuni is adorned in royal attire, featuring a magnificent diadem, with flanges that covers both ears and a conical Usnisha that points to a tall and sharp finial.

The Buddha Shakyamuni is seated on rocks with both legs rested on a pedestal, while His hands displaying the Varada (Charity-bestowing or receiving) mudra. His hands are seen extending downward and lying flat on the knee, fingers together, palm up or facing the viewer, usually symbolizes the bestowing of boons or favours.

All His fingers are adorned with rings, further emphasising His regal bearing. It is believed that such imagery of the Buddha are patronized and worshipped only by the King.

An elephant and a monkey are seen paying their respects and making offerings to the Buddha - the elephant is holding a stick-like object, while the monkey is offering Buddha a banana wrapped in honeycomb.

Historical Background

This image is believed to be inspired by a story from the Theravada tradition. In His ninth year of Enlightenment, the Buddha was at Kosambi, preaching Dharma to His disciples. Schism arose within the Sangha, due to a misunderstanding that arose from a trivial dispute between the discourse teacher and disciplinary teacher in the Sangha.1 p65, 2 p109, 3 c11

Buddha tried to intervene and settle the dispute, but even His advice was ignored. The disheartened Buddha then chose to proceed to the Parileyyaka forest alone to meditate.

During His retreat, the Buddha was looked after by an elephant and monkey. The elephant gave the Buddha protection from wild animal and even beg alms on His behalf, while the monkey gathered flowers, fruits and honey for Him.1 p65, 4 fig 138

The monks who were responsible for the dispute were shunned by the people, when they found out about the dispute, which caused the subsequent departure of Buddha.

Finally, the monks realized their mistake and beg for Buddha’s forgiveness. He accepted them without blame and returned to the Sangha to resume His Dharma preaching.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  3. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Quarrel at Kosambi
  2. Kosambi - Wikipedia

接受供养

工艺品

Buddha Shakyamuni Receiving Offerings

受供养坐佛

Country of Origin: Thailand 来源地:泰国
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 49W x 91D x 124H (cm) 尺寸:高124、宽49、深91(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased From a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

描述

这是一座来自大城府晚期的典型释迦牟尼佛像。大城府是一个泰国的王国,存在于公元1350年至1767年。

释迦牟尼佛身穿皇室华服,头戴华丽王冠,冠缘盖住双耳,锥形肉髻向上延伸。

释迦牟尼佛坐在岩石上,双腿搁在基座上,他的手持与愿手印 (慈悲赠与或接受)。他的手自然下垂,平靠在膝盖上,手指并拢,掌心向上或向着观众,通常象征着对人的恩赐或恩惠。

他所有的手指上都戴着戒指,进一步强调了他的帝王气质。据说只有那些具有这种意象的佛像,国王才会瞻仰和崇拜。

大象和猴子都在向佛陀致敬和敬献,大象持一个棍状物,猴子则向佛陀敬献裹着蜂巢的香蕉。

历史背景

这个形象被认为是受到了来自小乘派传统的一个故事所启发的。在佛陀觉悟成道后的第九年,佛陀在憍赏弥向信众宣扬佛法。由于僧团中的语言老师和纪律老师之间的琐碎争执而产生的误解,僧团内部产生了分裂。1 p65, 2 p109, 3 c11

佛陀试图调解争端,但他的建议也被忽视了。心灰意冷的佛陀随后选择到 波利耶沙罗森林独自禅坐。

在佛陀隐居期间,有一头大象和一只猴子照顾他。大象保护佛陀不受野兽袭击,甚至替他乞讨,而猴子则为他采集鲜花、水果和蜂蜜。1 p65, 4 fig 138

当人们发现争执这件事后,引起争议的僧人被其他人所避开,这也导致了随后佛陀的离开。

最后,僧人们意识到了自己的错误,并请求佛陀的原谅。他没有责备地接受了他们,并让他们回到僧团,继续他的佛法布道。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  3. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Quarrel at Kosambi
  2. Kosambi - Wikipedia

Daily Schedule

Artefact

The Reclining Buddha

卧佛

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Glided Wood 材质:镀金木
Dimensions: 31W x 50D x 128H (cm) 尺寸:高128、宽31、深50(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Adopted by:

Tan Kean Yew and Family

捐赠者:

大德居士陈建耀、陈丽容、陈卉伶、陈俊愷、陈治愷

Description

Throughout His day, the Buddha would take his rest or sleep in this reclining position.

Bearing a gentle expression with His eyes closed, the Buddha’s upper right torso rests His head on a bolster while His right arm is extended away from His body and His left arm is fully extended, following the curvature of His body.

Dressed in half of His right upper chest discretely exposed, the shawl on the body is layered and voluminous, spreading outwards like flower-petals. His left knee is slightly bent at an angle, while His right leg is straightened, resulting in an unparallel feet alignment.

Historical Background

His day was divided into five parts, namely, (i) The Forenoon Session, (ii) The Afternoon Session, (iii) The First Watch, (iv) The Middle Watch and (v) The Last Watch.

Forenoon Session

Usually early in the morning He surveys the world with His Divine Eye to see whom he could help. If any person needs His spiritual assistance, uninvited He goes, often on foot, sometimes by air using His psychic powers, and converts that person to the right path.2, pg168

As a rule, He goes in search of the vicious and the impure, but the pure and the virtuous come in search of Him. For instance, the Buddha went of His own accord to convert the robber and murderer Angulimāla and the wicked demon Ālavaka, but pious young Visākhā, generous millionaire Anāthapindika, and intellectual Sāriputta and Moggallāna came up to Him for spiritual guidance.2, pg168-169

While rendering such spiritual service to whomsoever it is necessary, if He is not invited to partake of alms by a lay supporter at some particular place, He, before whom Kings prostrated themselves, would go in quest of alms through alleys and streets, with bowl in hand, either alone or with His disciples.2, pg169

Standing silently at the door of each house, without uttering a word, He collects whatever food is offered and placed in the bowl and returns to the monastery. Even in His eightieth year when He was old and in indifferent health, He went on His rounds for alms in Vesāli. Before midday He finishes His meals.2, pg169

Immediately after lunch He daily delivers a short discourse to the people, establishes them in the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts and if any person is spiritually advanced, he is shown the Path to Sainthood. At times He grants Ordination to them if they seek admission to the Order and then retires to His chamber.2, pg169

Afternoon Session

After the noon meal He takes a seat in the monastery and the Bhikkhus assemble to listen to His exposition of the Dhamma. Some approach Him to receive suitable objects of meditation according to their temperaments; others pay their due respects to Him and retire to their cells to spend the afternoon.2, pg169

After His discourse or exhortation to His disciples, He Himself retires to His private Perfumed Chamber to rest. If He so desires, He lies on His right side and sleeps for a while with mindfulness. 2, pg169

On rising, He attains to the Ecstasy of Great Compassion (Mahā Karunā Samāpatti) and surveys, with His Divine Eye, the world, especially the Bhikkhus who retired to solitude for meditation and other disciples in order to give them any spiritual advice that is needed.2, pg169-170

If the erring ones who need advice happen to be at a distance, there He goes by psychic powers, admonishes them and retires to His chamber. Towards evening the lay followers flock to Him to hear the Dhamma.2, pg170

Perceiving their innate tendencies and their temperaments with the Buddha-Eye, He preaches to them for about one hour. Each member of the audience, though differently constituted, thinks that the Buddha’s sermon is directed to him.2, pg170

Such was the Buddha’s method of expounding the Dhamma. As a rule, the Buddha converts others by explaining His teachings with homely illustrations and parables, for He appeals more to the intellect than to emotion.2, pg170

To the average man the Buddha at first speaks of generosity, discipline, and heavenly bliss. To the more advanced He speaks on the evils of material pleasures and on the blessings of renunciation. To the highly advanced He expounds the Four Noble Truths.2, pg170

On rare occasions as in the case of Angulimāla and Khemā did the Buddha resort to His psychic powers to effect a change of heart in His listeners. The sublime teachings of the Buddha appealed to both the masses and the intelligentsia alike. A Buddhist poet sings: “Giving joy to the wise, promoting the intelligence of the middling, and dispelling the darkness of the dull-witted, this speech is for all people.” Both the rich and the poor, the high and the low, renounced their former faiths and embraced the new Message of Peace.2, pg170-171

The infant Sāsana, which was inaugurated with a nucleus of five ascetics, soon developed into millions and peacefully spread throughout Central India.2, pg171

First Watch

This period of the night extends from 6 to 10 p.m. and was exclusively reserved for instruction to Bhikkhus. During this time the Bhikkhus were free to approach the Buddha and get their doubts cleared, question Him on the intricacies of the Dhamma, obtain suitable objects of meditation, and hear the doctrine.2, pg171

Middle Watch

During this period which extends from 10 p.m. to 2 a.m. Celestial Beings such as Devas and Brahmas, who are invisible to the physical eye, approach the Buddha to question Him on the Dhamma.2, pg171

An oft-recurring passage in the Suttas is: “Now when the night was far spent a certain Deva of surpassing splendour came to the Buddha, respectfully saluted Him and stood at a side.” Several discourses and answers given to their queries appear in the Samyutta Nikāya.2, pg171

Last Watch

The small hours of the morning, extending from 2 to 6 a.m. which comprise the last watch, are divided into four parts.2, pg171

This serves as a mild physical exercise to Him. During the second part, that is from 3 to 4 a.m. He mindfully sleeps on His right side. During the third part, that is from 4 to 5 a.m., He attains the state of Arahantship and experiences Nibbānic bliss.2, pg171-172

For one full hour from 5 to 6 a.m. He attains the Ecstasy of Great Compassion (Mahā Karunāsamāpatti) and radiates thoughts of loving-kindness towards all beings and softens their hearts. At this early hour He surveys the whole world with His Buddha-Eye to see whether He could be of service to any.2, pg171-172

The virtuous and those that need His help appear vividly before Him though they may live at a remote distance. Out of compassion for them He goes of His own accord and renders necessary spiritual assistance.2, pg172

The whole day He is fully occupied with His religious duties. Unlike any other living being He sleeps only for one hour at night. For two full hours in the morning and at dawn He pervades the whole world with thoughts of boundless love and brings happiness to millions. Leading a life of voluntary poverty, seeking His alms without inconveniencing any, wandering from place to place for eight months throughout the year preaching His sublime Dhamma, He tirelessly worked for the good and happiness of all till His eightieth year.2, pg172

According to the Dharmapradipikā the last watch is divided into these four parts. According to the commentaries the last watch consists of three parts. During the third part the Buddha attains the Ecstasy of Great Compassion.2, pg172

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  3. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  4. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  5. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  6. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  7. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  8. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Buddha's Daily Routine

每日行程

工艺品

The Reclining Buddha

卧佛

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Glided Wood 材质:镀金木
Dimensions: 31W x 50D x 128H (cm) 尺寸:高128、宽31、深50(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Adopted by:

Tan Kean Yew and Family

捐赠者:

大德居士陈建耀、陈丽容、陈卉伶、陈俊愷、陈治愷

描述

在佛陀的一每天中,他会以这种斜靠的姿势休息或睡觉。

佛陀以绅士安详的姿势侧卧,闭着眼睛,他的头靠在枕头上,右臂随着身体伸展,左臂随着身体自然伸直,跟随他的身体弯曲。

他的右侧胸膛因衣服分散而裸露,身上的披巾层层叠叠,宽大且像花瓣一样向外展开。 他的左膝微微弯曲,右腿伸直,导致双脚成不平行的状态。

历史背景

佛陀一天的时间分成五个部份:上午,下午,第一时夜,中时夜,后时夜。

上午

通常在清晨,他用天眼纵观苍生,看他能帮助谁。如果有人需要他的精神帮助,他不请而来,经常是步行而至,有时是通过使用他的精神力量,帮助那个人回到正途。2, pg168

以他的准则,他会去寻找邪恶和不纯洁的人,而纯洁和善良的人会主动来寻找他。比如,佛陀去找到并度化了杀人犯央掘魔罗和凶暴夜叉阿拉瓦卡,但是虔诚的毘舍佉,慷慨的富豪须达多,博学的舍利弗和目犍連等会主动来找到他,接受精神指导。2, pg168-169

在向有需要的人提供这种灵性服务的同时, 如果没有被施主邀请到指定地方,在国王向他俯首叩拜之前,他会手里拿着钵盂,沿着小巷和街道行乞化缘,直到当地的国王向他俯首叩拜,无论是他独自己或与是他的弟子也都是如此。2, pg169

他安静的站在每家每户的门口,一言不发,收集所有的食物,放在碗里,然后返回寺庙。即使到了80岁老年时,他也不过于专注自己的健康情况,依旧行乞。过午不食。2, pg169

每日午饭过后,他会即刻给人们发表简短的演说,建立 在三归五戒中,如果任何人在灵修上有了进步,他就会被指引通往神圣的道路。有时,如果他们要求皈依,他会授予他们法号,然后回到他的房间。2, pg169

下午

午饭过后,他在寺院里坐下,比丘们聚集在一起听他讲解佛法。有些人走到他身边,根据自己的心性修炼禅坐,其他人则对他表示尊敬然后回到各自的禅房度过下午。2, pg169

在对弟子讲道或劝诫之后,他会回到自己的禅房休息。如果愿意,他会右侧卧着,带着专注的睡一会。2, pg169

醒来时,佛陀达到了大悲心的狂喜,以天圣眼观世间一切众生,给予他们必要的禅修指导。2, pg169-170

如果需要劝诫的犯错的人碰巧在远方,他就会通过神通去劝诫他们,然后回到自己的房间。傍晚时,信徒们聚集到他那里听佛法。2, pg170

他以佛眼观察人们的本性和性情,对他们讲经约一小时。每一位听众,尽管各不相同,但都认为佛陀的讲道是符合他们各自的情况的。2, pg170

这就是佛陀传授佛法的方法。通常,佛陀通过简单的例证和比喻来解释他的教义,使他人皈依,因为他更诉诸于智慧而非情感。2, pg170

对于普罗大众,佛陀首先讲的是慷慨,戒律和天赐的福分。对于比较高修行者,他会谈到物质享乐的罪恶和放弃的幸福。他对更高修行的人士,他就讲述四圣谛。2, pg170

在极少数情况下,比如央掘魔罗和讖摩,佛陀动用了他的精神力量去度化他们。佛陀的崇高教义对于普罗大众和修行者都很有吸引力。一位佛教诗人唱到:“给智者以欢乐,提升中等人的智慧,驱散愚者的黑暗,这是针对所有人的演讲。”不论贫富,不论地位高低,都放弃了他们以前的信仰,拥抱新的平和的世界。2, pg170-171

佛陀教法的雏形,起始于最早的五种禁欲主义,很快发展为数百万并且很快平和的流传到印度中部。2, pg171

第一时夜

下午6点到10点的这段夜晚时间,专门留给指导比丘们。在此期间,比丘们可以自由的接近佛陀并消除他们的疑虑,比丘们把复杂的佛法问题向他请教,并接受适宜的修禅法,和聆听佛陀的开示。2, pg171

中时夜

在晚上10点到凌晨2点的这段时间,像提婆和梵天这样的天界人士,常人肉眼是看不见的,天神们会接近佛陀,向他询问佛法。2, pg171

《佛经》中有一段反复出现的经文是:“现在,当夜色渐深,一位无比辉煌的天神来到佛陀跟前,恭敬地向他敬礼,并站在一旁。”一些话语和答案出现在《相应部》中。2, pg171

后时夜

凌晨2点至6点是后时夜,分成四个时段。2, pg171

第一部分对他来说是轻微的体育锻炼。在第二部分,即凌晨3点至4点,他会正念右卧。第三部分是凌晨4点至5点,佛陀体验涅槃之乐。2, pg171-172

从早上5点至6点,他深入大悲之喜,以大慈之心照耀众生, 滋润他们的心田。在这个时间,他环视整个世间,看是否可以给人以帮助。2, pg171-172

那些善良的人和需要佛陀帮助的人,尽管这些人身处远方,但佛陀会栩栩如生的在他们面前显现。怀着怜悯苍生的慈悲,他会给予精神上的帮助。2, pg172

佛陀整日忙于宗教职责,与其他苍生不同,他晚上只睡一个小时。在清晨的整整两个小时中,他让无边的爱遍及整个世界,给千百万人带来幸福。他自愿过着贫穷的生活,不给任何人带来不便,整整八个月从一个地方到另一个地方传播佛法, 他不知疲劳的为众生的美好和幸福而忙碌,直到他80岁。2, pg172

根据《Dharmapradipikā》记载,后时夜分为四个部分。根据评注,后时夜分包含三个部分,在第三个部分,佛陀深入大悲之喜。2, pg172

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  2. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  3. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  4. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  5. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  6. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  7. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  8. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Buddha's Daily Routine

Mahaparinirvana

Artefact

Mahaparinirvana

入灭

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Glided Copper 材质:镀金铜
Dimensions: 30W x 5D x 13H (cm) 尺寸:高13、宽30、深5(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

Description

Bearing a serene and unassuming expression, the Buddha’s upper right torso rests on a bolster while His right arm is bent with His head lying against his top palm and His left arm is full extended, following the curvature of His body.

Dressed in half of His right upper chest discretely exposed, the shawl on the body is layered and voluminous, spreading outwards like flower-petals. The feet of the Buddha are straightened in a parallel alignment, signifying His imminent entry into Mahaparinirvana.

Such depictions of the Buddha entering Mahaparinirvana, draws attention to the moment He leaves His enlightened body having attained nibbana – releasing Him from Samsara (karmic cycle of rebirths), freeing Him from any substratum of further becoming.

The Mahaparinirvana is thus described as the realm of the eternal true Anatta (Self) of the Buddha.

Historical Background

The Mahaparinirvana Sutra described the event when Buddha was preparing and entering Mahaparinirvana.1, 2, 3 p73, 4 c14

The Buddha went to Pava and stayed at the mango grove of Cunda the smith.

4.20. And after having eaten the meal provided by Cunda, the Lord was attacked by a severe sickness with bloody diarrhea, and with sharp pains as if He were about to die. But He endured all this mindfully and clearly aware, and without complaint. Then the Lord said: 'Ānanda, let us go to Kusināra.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda.

4.38. Tonight, Ānanda, in the last watch, in the sāl-grove of the Mallas near Kusinārā, between two sāl-trees, the Tathāgata's final passing will take place. And now, Ānanda, let us go to the River Kakutthā.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda.

5.1. The Lord said: 'Ānanda, let us cross the Hiraññavatī River and go to the Mallas' sāl-grove in the vicinity of Kusinārā.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda, and the Lord, with a large company of monks, crossed the river and went to the sāl-grove. There the Lord said: 'Ānanda, prepare me a bed between these twin sāl-trees with my head to the north. I am tired and want to lie down.' 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda, and did so. Then the Lord lay down on His right side in the lion-posture, placing one foot on the other, mindful and dearly aware.

5.2. And those twin sāl-trees burst forth into an abundance of untimely blossoms, which fell upon the Tathāgata's body, sprinkling it and covering it in homage. Divine coral-tree flowers fell from the sky, divine sandal-wood powder fell from the sky, sprinkling and covering the Tathāgata's body in homage. Divine music and song sounded from the sky in homage to the Tathāgata.

5.11. 'But, Lord, what are we to do with the Tathāgata's remains?' 'Ānanda, they should be dealt with like the remains of a wheel-turning monarch.' 'And how is that, Lord?' ' Ānanda, the remains of a wheel-turning monarch are wrapped in a new linen-doth. This they wrap in teased cotton wool, and this in a new cloth. Having done these five hundred times each, they enclose the king's body in an oil-vat of iron, which is covered with another iron pot. Then having made a funeral-pyre of all manner of perfumes they cremate the king's body, and they raise a stupa at a crossroads. That, Ānanda, is what they do with the remains of a wheel-turning monarch, and they should deal with the Tathāgata's body in the same way. A stupa should be erected at the crossroads for the Tathāgata. And whoever lays wreaths or puts sweet perfumes and colors there with a devout heart, will reap benefit and happiness for a long time.

5.19. 'And now, Ānanda, go to Kusinārā and announce to the Mallas of Kusinārā: 'Tonight, Vāsetthas, in the last watch, the Tathāgata will attain Final Nibbāna. Approach Him, Vāseṭṭhas, approach Him, lest later you should regret it, saying: The Tathāgata passed away in our parish, and we did not take the opportunity to see Him for the last time!"" 'Very good, Lord', said Ānanda and, taking robe and bowl, he went with a companion to Kusinārā.

6.7. Then the Lord said to the monks: 'Now, monks, I declare to you: all conditioned things are of a nature to decay - strive on untiringly.' These were the Tathāgata's last words.

6.8. Then the Lord entered the first jhāna. And leaving that He entered the second, the third, the fourth jhāna. Then leaving the fourth jhāna, He entered the Sphere of Infinite Space, then the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, then the Sphere of No-Thingness, then the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-perception, and leaving that He attained the Cessation of Feeling and Perception.

6.9. Then the Lord, leaving the attainment of the Cessation of Feeling and Perception, entered the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, from that He entered the Sphere of Nothingness, the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, the Sphere of Infinite Space. From the Sphere of Infinite Space, He entered the fourth jhāna, from there the third, the second and the first jhāna. Leaving the first jhāna, He entered the second, the third, the fourth jhāna. And, leaving the fourth jhāna, the Lord finally passed away.

6.10. And at the Blessed Lord's final passing there was a great earthquake, terrible and hair-raising, accompanied by thunder.

Brahma Sahampati uttered this with the passing of the Buddha with a resounding earthquake:

All beings in the world, all bodies must break up:
Even the Teacher, peerless in the human world,
The mighty Lord and perfect Buddha has passed away.

Sakka, king of Devas uttered this:

‘Impermanent are compounded things, prone to rise and fall,
Having risen, they are destroyed, their passing truest bliss.’

Venerable Anuruddha uttered this:

‘No breathing in and out – just with steadfast heart
The Sage who is free from lust has passed away to peace.
With mind unshaken He endured all pains:
By Nibbana the Illumined’s mind is freed

With the passing of the Buddha, His last words for all to heed were:

Vayadhamma sankhara,
Appamadena sampadetha
All conditioned things are subject to decay.
Strive on with diligence

BTRTM Similar Artefact

Mahaparinirvana

入灭

Country of Origin: China, commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

购置说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

Description

This gold leaf on copper panel is the initial trial panel of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Golden Sacred Relic Buddha Tooth Stupa, located at the 4th floor of the Temple. This was crafted by Shanghai Kangyu Enterprise.

The scene of ‘Mahaparinirvana’ is elaborated with the vivid depictions of Buddha Shakyamuni in reclining position on a couch, surrounded by numerous disciples, against the backdrop of Sala trees.

Ven. Chao Khun Fa ZhaoBBM's Pilgrimage to Kushinagar, India


In northern India, 53 km west of Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh near the Hiranyavati River lies Kushinagar, which is the place where the Buddha enters Mahaparinirvana, where he was subsequently cremated at the Ramabhar stupa.6 p137

Kushinagar was once a celebrated centre of the Malla kingdom.

Many of its stupas and viharas date back to 230 BCE to 413 CE. when it was at its peak of prosperity. Kushinagar also expresses the common thread of all sects of Buddhism through its magnificent Viharas, Chaityas, temples and Tibetan monasteries.

Some attractions include the Mahaparinirvana Stupa and Temple, where the finding of a copper vessel, with the Brahmi inscription on it proving that the Buddha’s ashes were buried in the place, made this place an important destination for all Buddhists devotees.

In the Mahaparinirvana Temple, there is a long statue of a reclining Buddha that is more than six metres long. The image was unearthed during the excavations of 1876. Carved from Chunar sandstone, the statue represents the dying Buddha reclining on his right side.

The Ramabhar Stupa, about 1.5 km away from the Mahaparinirvana Temple, rises to a height of 49 ft. It marks the site where the Lord Buddha was cremated.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. The Mahaparinibbana Sutta
  2. Sister Vajira, Francis Story, Last Days of The Buddha : The Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 2007, ISBN 10-955-9219-98-7
  3. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  6. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  7. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  8. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  9. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  10. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

Websites:

  1. Life of Buddha: The Buddha's Last Words
  2. Incredible India | Kushinagar
  3. Kushinagar - Wikipedia

大涅盘

工艺品

Mahaparinirvana

入灭

Country of Origin: China 来源地:中国
Material: Glided Copper 材质:镀金铜
Dimensions: 30W x 5D x 13H (cm) 尺寸:高13、宽30、深5(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Acquisition Notes:

Purchased from a Private Collector

购置说明:

从私人收藏家处购买

描述

佛陀的右上身靠着,呈现安详与谦逊状态,他的右臂弯曲,头靠在手掌上,左臂随着身体自然伸展开来。

他的右侧上半身因衣服分散而袒露,身上的袈裟层层叠叠,像花瓣一样向外展开。佛陀的双脚是时平行的,预示着他即将进入涅槃。

这类佛陀进入大涅槃的这类描述,将人们的注意力被吸引到他获得涅槃后离开觉悟身体的那一刻 —— 将他从轮回(业力轮回)中解脱离,不生不灭。

大般涅因此盘被描述为佛陀永恒的真我境界。

历史背景

《大般涅槃经》叙述了佛陀准备并进入大涅槃的情况。1, 2, 3 p73, 4 c14

佛陀去了波婆,并停留在纯陀的芒果林中。

4.20. 在吃完纯陀所贡献的食物后,佛陀突然患了重病,腹泻带血,巨痛难忍。但他却谨慎而清醒的忍受,毫无怨言。佛陀说:“阿难,我们去拘尸那揭罗。” “是,师傅”阿难回答道说。

4.38. 今晚,阿难,在看最后一眼,在拘尸那揭罗的娑罗林中,两颗娑罗林中间,如来最后入灭的地方。现在,阿难,我们去迦俱多河。“是,师傅”阿难回答说。

5.1. 佛陀说:“阿难,我们穿过阿恃多伐底河,去拘尸那揭罗的娑罗林。“ “是,师傅”阿难回答说。于是佛陀在众弟子的跟随下,过河来到了娑罗林。在那佛陀说:“阿难,给我在两棵娑罗树中间铺下卧具,头部向北,我已很累,愿在这里入灭”。 “是,师傅”阿难回答道,并照做。 然后佛陀躺下,如雄狮般向右侧偃卧,一只脚放置在另一只脚上,非常清醒。

5.2. 两颗娑罗树同时开花,落在如来身上。神圣的白色的曼珠沙花和檀香木粉从天飘落,覆盖在佛陀身上。天边传来神圣的音乐和歌曲向佛陀致敬。

5.11. “但是,我们要如何处理如来的遗体呢?阿难问道。”阿难,如来的遗体应该像转轮王那样处理“。“怎么做呢?” “阿难,转轮王的遗体被包裹在新的亚麻布中,他们用缠过的棉絮把遗体包起来,再用新的布把它包裹起来, 包裹五百次之后,他们把转轮王的遗体装在盛满油的铁缸中,缸里再盖铁罐。然后他们用各种香料把遗体火化,并在十字路口处建佛塔。阿难,这就是他们处理转轮王遗体的的方式,他们应该以同样的方式处理如来的遗体。建立一座佛塔,无论谁怀着虔诚的心在那里敬献花圈和香水,都将受到福佑。

5.19. “现在,阿难,去拘尸那揭罗。今晚,末罗,在看最后一眼,如来将会涅槃。找他,接近他,免得日后你会后悔说:我们的如来离开了,我没能有机会见他最后一面。” “是, 师傅。“阿难回答道。然后拿起长袍和乞碗,他去了拘尸那揭罗。

6.7. 然后,佛陀对弟子说:“众徒,我向你们教诫:诸行法如是,不应生忧憹” 这是佛祖生前最后的话。

6.8. 然后,佛陀进入了第一层禅那,而后进入到第二层,第三层和第四层禅那。然后他进入了无限空间。无受想行识,五蕴皆空。

6.9. 然后佛陀开始没有感觉和知觉,进入了非觉的状态,然后进入无意识,无限空间的领域。从第四层禅那进入到第三层,第二层然后第一层。离开第一层,他又进入第二层,第三层,第四层,离开第四层禅那,他涅槃了。

6.10. 佛陀临终时,发生了地震,令人毛骨悚然,还伴随着雷声。

大梵天萨汉巴帝在佛陀去世时发出震耳欲闻的声音:

世界上所有的众生,所有的身体都必须分裂
人类世界中独一无二的老师,
全能和完美的佛陀已经去世了。

天王帝释天说:

“无常是复杂的事物,倾向于起起落落,
复活了,毁灭了,他们离去是真正极乐。”

阿尼律陀尊者说:

“没有呼吸 —— 只有坚定的心
从凡尘中解脱出来的圣人已经平静地去世了。
他以坚定的精神忍受了所有的痛苦:
涅槃使心灵得到解脱

随着佛陀的去世,他留给所有人的临终遗言是:

Vayadhamma sankhara,
Appamadena sampadetha
诸行皆是坏灭法,应自精进不放逸,勤求出道

佛牙寺龙华院同类藏品

Mahaparinirvana

入灭

Country of Origin: China, commissioned by BTRTM 来源地:中国,为新加坡佛牙寺定制
Material: Gold Leaf on Copper 材质:铜镀金箔
Dimensions: 106 W x 4 D x 57 H (cm) 尺寸:57高、106宽、4深(厘米)
Period: 19th CE to 20th CE 时期:公元十九到二十世纪
Notes:

A reproduction of the ‘Eight Aspects of Buddha’s Life’- panels found at the base of the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic Stupa, Level 4

购置说明:

释迦摩尼佛八相成道’复制品,在佛牙舍利宝塔的下围,新加坡佛牙寺,四楼

描述

这幅镀金铜板放置于佛牙寺龙华院四楼的佛牙舍利塔座下方, 描绘了释迦摩尼佛人生八个阶段的其中一个阶段。 该复制品由上海康宇集团制作。

大涅槃的场景,生动的描绘了佛陀释迦摩尼躺在娑罗树下,周围无数弟子围绕着。

昭坤释法照法师BBM前往印度拘尸那揭罗朝圣


在印度北部,在北方邦的戈拉克布尔以西53公里,靠近跋提河的地方是拘尸那揭罗,佛陀在这里大涅盘,随后在拉马伯哈尔塔被火化。6 p137

拘尸那揭罗曾经是末罗王朝的朝圣中心。

这里的许多佛塔和寺院可以追溯到公元前230年到公元413年。当时它正处于繁荣的顶峰时期。拘尸那揭罗还通过其宏伟的各类寺庙, 传达着所有佛教教派的共同特征。

一些景点包括大槃塔和寺庙,在那里发现了一个铜容器,上面有梵天的铭文,证明佛陀的骨灰埋葬在这里,使这里成为所有佛教徒的重要朝圣地。

在涅槃寺,还有一尊身长超过6米的卧佛。这尊佛像是在1876年的发掘中出土的。 佛像由硬砂岩砌成,表现佛陀右侧卧涅槃时的状态。

大荼毗塔,距离大涅槃塔约1.5公里, 塔高49英尺,这里是佛祖火化的地方。

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. The Mahaparinibbana Sutta
  2. Sister Vajira, Francis Story, Last Days of The Buddha : The Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 2007, ISBN 10-955-9219-98-7
  3. Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero, Life of The Buddha In Gandhara Art, 2006, ISBN 981-05-7045-7
  4. Ven. Narada Maha Thero, Vision of The Buddha, The Buddha and His Teachings, 2006, ISBN-10: 8179926176
  5. Saddhaloka, Encounters With Enlightenment, Stories from the Life of the Buddha, Windhorse Publications, 2001, ISBN 978 1 899579 37 2
  6. Department of Tourism, Government of India, Walking with the Buddha, 2nd edition 2004, ISBN 81-87780-24-X
  7. Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 3rd edition 2008, ISBN 978-81-215-0967-1
  8. Indian Museum, Kolkata, The Way of The Buddha, reprint 2005
  9. Ratan Parimoo, Life of the Buddha in Indian Sculpture, 1936, ISBN 13:9788124605523
  10. Charles F. Chicarelli, Buddhist Art: An Illustrated Introduction, 2004, ISBN 974-9575-54-7

参考网站

  1. Life of Buddha: The Buddha's Last Words
  2. Incredible India | Kushinagar
  3. Kushinagar - Wikipedia

How the Museum is Supported Financially
博物馆是如何获得财政支持的

The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple & Museum follows the traditional Buddhist practice of offering the Dharma (Teachings of the Buddha) to all, and we do not charge any fees for admission to our temple museum. At ‘Buddhas of the World’ Museum, we share the Dharma through the exhibits of the Buddha Shakyamuni, Buddha Maitreya and sacred relics of the Buddha. Your generous donations will help us to acquire, conserve and promote Buddhist artefacts and artworks, for the present and future generations to come.

佛牙寺龙华院遵从传统佛教戒律,广传佛法,我们寺院博物馆不收取任何入门的费用。在世界佛像博物馆,我们通过展出释迦摩尼佛,弥勒佛和佛陀的舍利子来传播佛法。您慷慨的捐赠将会帮助我们收集,保存和推广佛教文物和艺术品,呈现给现在和未来的访客。

Please lend a helping hand by donating to our BTRTS Museum Fund, thank you for your kind donation and may you have bountiful blessings on your Dharma journey!

请伸出您的援手捐款给新加坡佛牙寺博物馆基金,感谢您的善举,祝愿您的佛法之旅万福!