Buddha Maitreya Trinity

Entering the first floor main hall of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple itself, you will experience the wonderful and breathtaking Hundred Dragons Hall. This main Temple Hall has a double volume space of 27-feet height, to accommodate the 15-feet Buddha Maitreya statue. All the interior fittings are designed according to Tang Dynasty Buddhist temple décor and fittings.


You will notice the serenity and peacefulness that permeates the Hundred Dragons Hall; and the many devotees offering fresh Dendrobium Buddha Tooth orchids, perfumed candles and agarwood incense, whilst whispering their prayers and wishes. It is often filled with the voices of numerous black robed devotees chanting one of the many sutras used in the various Buddhist ceremonies. A wonderful juxtapose of Sight, Sound, Smell and Spirituality!


Maitreya Trinity in BTRTM

Buddha Maitreya is in the middle of the venerated Maitreya Trinity, with the Bodhisattva Dharma Garden Grove on the left and the Bodhisattva Great Wondrous Appearance on the right.


The majestic Buddha Maitreya was initially modeled after a similar Tang period statue at Fo Gong Si at Mount Wutai, Shanxi, China.


It was carved from a single log and painstakingly hand painted using grounded natural stones and vegetable dyes. The Buddha Maitreya sits in a typical Tang Bhadrasana (auspicious) posture, also called Pralambapadasana (European pose), with each feet on a lotus, symbolic of royalty.


The right hand is raised in the Abhaya mudra (protection, benevolence, peace and dispelling of fear), with the left hand in the Varada mudra (offering, giving, welcome, charity compassion and sincerity), with a golden water bottle (kundika) containing the amrita, placed in the left palm.


A gilt crown (mukuta) sits on the forehead to symbolise the royalty status.



The Buddha Maitreya is seated on the rectangular Singhasana (lion) throne, a symbol of the Buddha’s royal ancestry and the great strength of His Teachings. Lion thrones are commonly seen in early China Buddhism statues.


The aureole (nimbus or mandorla) is shaped like a lotus petal curved towards the head. It has colorful swirling aura and clouds radiating from the head, with a small stupa at the top.


About Buddha Maitreya


Maitreya, (Sanskrit: Maitri, Metta; Pāli: Ariya Metteyya; Tibetan: Jampa; Mongolia: Maijdari; China: Milofo, 彌勒菩薩 (Mílè Púsa) ; Japan: Miroku, Mirokubutsu 弥勒仏, Miraibutsu 未来仏, Shouraibutsu 将来仏; Korean: Miryek Bosal, 미륵보살) is the future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.

Maitreya, “The Compassionate One”, “The Compassionate Honored One”, “The Loving One”, “The Future Buddha”, “Ajita (Invincible)” may be considered either as a Bodhisattva, according to the Sutras, or as a Buddha, according to the Tantras.

In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva. It is found in the canonical literature of all Buddhist sects (Theravāda, Mahāyāna, Vajrayāna), and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an event that will take place when the Dharma will have been forgotten on Earth.


Birth

Maitreya will be the successor of the historic Buddha Śākyamuni. Maitreya, will descend from the Tushita Heaven, where He now resides and teaches the heavenly beings, to appear in this world as the fifth founding Buddha of this present kalpa (aeon or world age).

According to Maitreyavyakarana Sutra, The Prophecy of Maitreya, A translation by Bhikkhu Kumarajiva, Mile chengfo jing (彌勒成佛經):

“'Maitreya, the best of men, will then leave the Tushita heavens, and go for his last rebirth into the womb of that woman. For ten whole months she will carry about his radiant body. Then she will go to a grove full of beautiful flowers, and there, neither seated nor lying down, but standing up, holding on to the branch of a tree, she will give birth to Maitreya. He, supreme among men, will emerge from her right side, as the sun shines forth when it has prevailed over a bank of clouds. No more polluted by the impurities of the womb than a lotus by drops of water, he will fill this entire Triple world with his splendour. As soon as he is born he will walk seven steps forward, and where he puts down his feet a jewel or a lotus will spring up. He will raise his eyes to the ten directions, and ill speak these words: "This is my last birth. There will be no rebirth after this one. Never will I come back here, but, all pure, I shall win Nirvana!"

The birthday is the first day of the first month.

The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya will occur after the Teachings (Dharmma) of the current Buddha Gautama are no longer meaningfully communicated or are completely forgotten on Jambudvipa. His arrival signifies the end of the middle time, the time between fourth Buddha, Gautama, and the fifth Buddha, Maitreya, which is viewed as a low point of human existence, due to the absence of such enlightened beings. It is found in the canonical literature of all Buddhist sects (Theravāda, Mahāyāna, Vajrayāna), and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an event that will take place when Dharma will be forgotten on Earth.

Maitreya's coming is characterized by a number of physical events. For example, the oceans are predicted to decrease in size, allowing Maitreya to traverse them freely. These events will also enable the reintroduction of the "true" Dharma to the people, in turn allowing the construction of a new world.

According to the Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor, Digha Nikaya 26 of the Sutta Pitaka of the Pāli Canon), Buddha Maitreya will be born in a time when humans will live to an age of eighty thousand years, in the city of Ketumatī (present Benares), whose king will be the Cakkavattī Sankha. Sankha will live in the palace where once dwelt King Mahāpanadā, but later he will give the palace away and will himself become a follower of Buddha Maitreya.

The Buddha Maitreya is also introduced by Buddha Sakyamuni to disciple Sariputra in the Anagatavamsha.

Enlightenment

According to Maitreyavyakarana Sutra, The Prophecy of Maitreya, A Translation by Bhikkhu Kumarajiva, Mile chengfo jing (《彌勒成佛經》):

“A Dragon (Naga) tree will then be the tree under which he will win enlightenment; its branches rise up to fifty leagues, and its foliage spreads far and wide over six Kos. Underneath it Maitreya, the best of men, will attain enlightenment- there can be no doubt on that. And he will win his enlightenment the very same day that he has gone forth into the homeless life.”

Note: For more information about Naga trees, see section on “Naga Trees”.


In the Surangama Sutra: Indestructible Sutra, 大佛頂如來密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞嚴經(commonly楞嚴經), verses 111 - 118, Maitreya explains the method of cultivation he used to realize Enlightenment.

Dharma

At this time a notable teaching He will start giving is that of the ten non-virtuous deeds (killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views) and the ten virtuous deeds (the abandonment of: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views). His Dharma will not differ from that of previous Buddhas, except for an interesting tradition, that He will not teach any esoteric Tantras.

Shakyamuni Buddha also predicted that those who followed His Dharma would be reborn in the first circle of Maitreya’s entourage and would be able to complete the spiritual path under Maitreya’s guidance.

In the Dasabodhisatta-uddesa,[142] Buddha Gotama says to Ven. Sariputta:

"Not all men will see my physical body. If they encounter my Teachings (sasana), give gifts (dana), observe morality (sila), and cultivate development of the mind (bhavana), through the fruit of that, they will be reborn in the time of Buddha Ariya Metteyya."

Also of great importance are the "Five Treatises of Maitreya". These texts are said to have been related to Asanga by the Buddha Maitreya, and comprise the heart of the Yogacara (or Cittamatra, "Mind-Only") school of philosophy in which all Tibetan Buddhist scholars are well-versed. They are as follows:

  • Ornament for Clear Realization (Abhisamayalankara, Tib. mngon-par rtogs-pa'i rgyan)
  • Ornament for the Mahayana Sutras (Mahayanasutralankara, Tib. theg-pa chen-po'i mdo-sde'i rgyan)
  • Sublime Continuum of the Mahayana (Mahayanottaratantrashastra, Ratnagotravibhaga, Tib. theg-pa chen-po rgyud-bla-ma'i bstan)
  • Distinguishing Phenomena and Pure Being (Dharmadharmatavibhanga, Tib. chos-dang chos-nyid rnam-par 'byed-pa)
  • Distinguishing the Middle and the Extremes (Madhyantavibhanga, Tib. dbus-dang mtha' rnam-par 'byed-pa)

Art



Maitreya is typically pictured seated, with either both feet on the ground or crossed at the ankles, on a throne, waiting for his time. He is dressed in the clothes of either a Bhiksu or Indian royalty. As a bodhisattva, he would usually be standing and dressed in jewels. Usually he wears a small stupa in his headdress that represents the stupa of the Buddha Sakyamuni's relics to help him identify it when his turn comes to lay claim to his succession, and can be holding a dharmachakra resting on a lotus. A khata is always tied around his waist as a girdle.


In the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, in the first centuries CE in northern India, Maitreya is represented as a Central Asian or northern Indian nobleman, holding a "water phial" (Sanskrit: Kumbha) in his left hand. Sometimes this is a "wisdom urn" (Sanskrit: Bumpa). He is flanked by his two acolytes, the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu.

Maitreya
Ghandara period (2 – 3 century AD)


Budai

Since his death, the Chinese monk Budai (Chinese: 布袋; pinyin: Bùdài means "Cloth Sack”; Japanese: Hotei 布袋); has been popularly regarded as an incarnation of the Bodhisattva Maitreya. His depiction as the Laughing Buddha continues to be very popular in East Asian culture.


According to Chinese history, Budai was an eccentric Chinese Zen (Chán) monk who lived during the Later Liang Dynasty (907–923 CE) of China. He was a native of Fenghua, and his Buddhist name was Qieci (Chinese: 契此; pinyin: Qiècǐ; literally "Promise this"). He was considered a man of good and loving character. His identification with the Bodhisattva Maitreya is attributed to a Buddhist hymn (Chinese: 偈语; pinyin: jìyǔ) he uttered before his death:

彌勒真彌勒,
化身千百億,
時時示時人,
時人自不識


Maitreya, the true Maitreya
has billions of incarnations.
Often he is shown to people at the time;
other times they do not recognize him.


Due to the popularity of the pot-bellied Buddha Maitreya since the Song Dynasty, Chinese monasteries seldom make images of the sitting Buddha Maitreya.


Even when they do, they often fail to add in the icons of the two attendant Bodhisattvas flanking him. As such, these two attendant Bodhisattvas and their honorific titles have largely fallen into obscurity.

However, some monasteries in Japan still keep the tradition of the Maitreya Trinity, i.e. making icons of the central Buddha coupled with the two Bodhisattvas. In China, remnant icons of the attendant Bodhisattvas flanking Maitreya can still be found in the western niche of Cave 194 at Dunhuang’s Mogao Grottoes.


Development of BTRTM Maitreya Statue

During the Sacred Buddha Tooth Exhibition in 2004 at Suntec Convention City, the main artifact used in our publicity material was the

2002, Suntec

Poster


Again, in the Sacred Buddha Tooth Exhibition in 2004 at Singapore Expo, the main artifact used in our publicity material was the

large stone 2004 expo

Poster


When Ven Shi Fa Zhao was in the one-year Dharma Retreat in 2003 at Golden Pagoda Buddhist Temple, he began planning for the creation of BTRTM. Due to the narrow width of the site, he decided not to have the typical Mahayana Buddha Triad of most Chinese temples. Hence, the choice was to develop a Tang Dynasty Buddha Maitreya, as this was the prevalent Buddha of worship during the Tang era.


After researching through various publications, we found some Tang period Buddha Maitreya pictures. The Tang period Buddha Maitreya of Foguang temple in Mount Wutai, Shanxi, China was the basis for development.


These were given to Singaporean artist Mr Goh Ee Choo, along with a briefing of our requirements for him to prepare a sketch. This was developed and shown to Ven Shi Fa Zhao.


A small wood model was commissioned to China Chin Ting Enterprise Co Ltd, Fuzhou, China which arrived in March 2006. This was displayed in our showroom office at 293 South Bridge Road for evaluation and public feedback.


The required height of 15 feet for the Maitreya Buddha statue was computed from a visitor’s view standing at the temple’s mountain gate. A full size scale Buddha Maitreya Thangka was commissioned to ascertain the visual impact.


This was hung at the Sago Lane exhibition site for 8 months, from January to August 2006.


The design was also given to the interior consultant to develop the stage and backdrop.


The initial design was then fine tuned into the whole hall.


The material for the Buddha statue was deliberated and Ven Shi Fa Zhao decided to use Taiwanese hinoke (Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana or Chamaecyparis taiwanensis). This cypress wood is often the preferred wood in East Asia for Buddha statues. It is grown for its very high quality timber in China, Taiwan and Japan, where it is used as a material for building palaces, temples, shrines, traditional theatres, table tennis blades and baths. The wood is lemon-scented, light pinkish-brown, with a rich, straight grain, and is highly rot-resistant.

We visited many wood carvers in China and Taiwan to view their workmanship. The carving of the BTRTM Buddha Maitreya Image was awarded to the renowned Taiwanese master carver Mr Chen Mingfeng of Taiwan Huangmu Art Center at Miao Li, Taiwan. Incidentally, Mr Chen was also the carver for Golden Pagoda Buddhist Temple’s Medicine Buddha image.


A search was made through the many sawmills of Taiwan, but unfortunately, we could not find such a big piece of log. As the time required for this main feature of the temple was running out, it was decided to join several pieces of logs to get the desired size. Miraculously, we received a telephone call from Taiwan on October 2005 advising that such a log had been found that morning. The sawmill owner had forgotten about this log. It was a quarter of the original tree and he had sold 3 of the quarters about 20 years ago. As there was no buyer, he had placed the remaining piece into the sawmill pond. He only noticed this piece when some buyers came to look for timber and he was lifting other logs from the pond. The instruction to purchase the log was immediately given by Venerable Shi Fa Zhao.Ven Shi Fa Zhao rushed to inspect the suitability of the hinoke log in October 2005.


The final model was developed and the dimensions computed according to the view from the mountain gate. The design for the 2 accompany Bodhisattvas was also firmed up.


A polystyrene full scale model was made to ascertain the desired characteristics before carving commence. Ven Shi Fa Zhao inspected and fine tuned the polystyrene model in early November 2005.


A commencement of wood carving blessing ceremony was held on 7 November 2005, led by Venerable Shi Fa Zhao with a number of Taiwan Sangha and Singapore devotees.



After which, the careful and rigorous carving by Mr Chen Mingfeng and his team started in earnest. Ven Shi FaZhao made several trips to monitor the progress and fine tune the work. By 27 March 2006, the main features of the carving were completed.


The Maitreya Sumeru Vault ceremony was held on 26 September 2006 to prepare the altar for receiving the Maitreya statue.


Maitreya Singhasana Stage

To complement the large Maitreya Buddha statue, Ven Shi FaZhao decided to erect a concrete Sumeru Vault and clad it with traditional lacquered panels. The China Chin Ting Enterprise Co Ltd, Fuzhou, China was commissioned to develop the Singhasana stage in Tang period tradition.


You will notice the colorful, prancing lions at the base, a symbol of royalty, strength and courage. In Buddhism, the lion’s roar represents the ‘Voice of the Law’ and a symbol of the great strength of His Teachings.


The fully completed Buddha Maitreya statue was inspected in Taiwan by Ven Shi Fa Zhao.


It was then shipped to Singapore on November 2006 and placed at our Loyang workshop for further preparations.


The Maitreya Throne Sealing Ceremony was held on 21 January 2007.


The team from Shanghai You Shan Guan Decorative Design Co Ltd, led by Mr Zhang Jian commenced the painstaking task of painting the Maitreya Buddha, the pedestal throne and the aureole, at our Loyang workshop.


30 April 2007, the Maitreya was finally hoisted into its final place.


From 1 to 7 May 2007, 15 monks from Sichuan, China conducted a 24-hours by 7-days, purification and blessing ceremony.


This was followed by the final laying of the gold trimmings and final paint touchups. By opening day, the Buddha Maitreya was ready, but without the 2 Bodhisattvas.


The Bodhisattva Dharma Garden Grove on the left with a slightly shorter apron, and the Bodhisattva Great Wondrous Appearance on the right with a longer apron was installed on ???.


The Maitreya Buddha was consecrated by Most Venerable Jing Xin of Taiwan during the BTRTM Grand Consecration Ceremony on 17 May 2008. Many devotees say that the Maitreya image had become more ‘matured’ after the ceremony!


Two Bodhisattvas

The research and design for the 2 Bodhisattvas was based on numerous examples.


The final design was


The two attendant Bodhisattvas are in the Tribhanga (triple flexion) posture on a lotus pedestal, with hands in Anjali mudra (offering and veneration). There is a cintamanicakra aureole behind their heads. Bodhisattva Dharma Garden Grove on the left has a slightly shorter apron, whilst the Bodhisattva Great Wondrous Appearance on the right has a longer apron.


These were hand carved by Mr Qiu Bin Xin from Taishin Arts & Crafts Enterprise, Miao Li, Taiwan and hand painted by Shanghai You Shan Guan Decorative Design Co Ltd, led by Mr Zhang Jian.


Maitreya Stage Columns and Beam

With the large Singhasana stage, Ven Shi FaZhao decided to install the huge stage columns and beam to provide a counterbalance and to frame the entire view. These columns and beam are from solid Canadian hinoke logs and capped by gilt elephants. It was developed by Xianyou Longwei Arts & Crafts Ltd, Putian, Fujian, China.


The Buddha Maitreya and attendant Bodhisattvas images placed in the Hundred Dragons Hall is dedicated to world peace, benevolence, compassion, friendship, happiness, success and to transfer merits to all sentient beings for good health, prosperity and to be reborn during the Maitreya era to gain Enlightment under Buddha Maitreya.


BTRTM Maitreya Ceremonies

The Buddha Maitreya birthday falls on the first day of the lunar year, which coincides with the Lunar Chinese New Year celebrations. The ceremony begins on the eve with special blessings for our donors of the Hundred Buddhas.

This is followed by a ceremony to welcome the Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic from the Gold Stupa onto a special pavilion in the Stupa Chamber. The Sacred Buddha Tooth Relic will be exhibited for 3 days at the pavilion so that devotes can have a closer look for veneration for the new lunar year.

On the Chinese New Year Day, Venerable Shi Fa Zhao will bless devotees at the Hundred Dragons Hall. BTRTM will also distribute special Dzambala coins and free vegetarian meals.

On the first day of every lunar month, from the 2nd lunar month onwards, the temple conducts a Buddha Maitreya blessings ceremony. The ceremony includes the chanting of the Ten Thousand Buddhas Sutra, which has been specially rearranged into 11 sections for the 11 months.


Hundred Heavenly Dragons

At BTRTM main hall, above the One Hundred Buddhas, there are One Hundred Dragons dancing around in harmony and peacefulness to pay tribute to the Hundred Buddhas.



Hundred Dragons in BTRTM

These specially accented One Hundred Dragons form an enchanting swirling ring around the Maitreya Hall, providing protection and vitality to all who worship in this Hall. If you look carefully, you will see them in pairs, with one dragon with closed mouth (Om) and the other with mouth open (Ha).



About Nagas and Dragons

Mythological animal and cosmological symbol of Chinese origin. The Dragon is a symbol for Chinese culture; it is also one of the world’s oldest and the most vitalized cultural iconography, it is the soul and spirit for all Chinese descendants since thousands of years. The beginnings of dragon myths are obscure, but belief in such a creature predates written history.


Types of Dragons

In both Chinese and Japanese mythology, the dragon is closely associated with the watery realm, and in artwork is often surrounded by water or clouds. In myth, there are four dragon kings who rule over the four seas (which in the old Chinese conception limited the habitable earth). In China, a fifth category of dragon was added to these four, for a total of five dragon types:

  1. Celestial Dragons who guard the mansions of the gods
  2. Spiritual Dragons who rule wind and rain but can also cause flooding
  3. Earth Dragons who cleanse the rivers and deepen the oceans
  4. Treasure-Guarding Dragons who protect precious metals and stones
  5. Imperial Dragons; dragons with five claws instead of the usual four

In China, dragon lore existed independently for centuries before the introduction of Buddhism. Bronze and jade pieces from the Shang and Zhou dynasties (16th - 9th centuries BC) depict dragon-like creatures. By at least the 2nd century BC, images of the dragon are found painted frequently on tomb walls to dispel evil. Buddhism was introduced to China sometime in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.

In India, the birthplace of Buddhism around 500 BC, pre-Buddhist snake or serpentine-like creatures known as the NAGA were incorporated early on into Buddhist mythology. Described as "water spirits with human shapes wearing a crown of serpents on their heads" or as "snake-like beings resembling clouds," the NAGA are among the eight classes of deities who worship and protect the Historical Buddha. Even before the Historical Buddha (Siddhartha, Guatama) attained enlightenment, the NAGA King Mucilinda (Sanskrit) is said to have protected Siddhartha from wind and rain for seven days. This motif is found often in Buddhist art from India, represented by images of the Buddha sitting beneath Mucilinda's hood and coils.

Nāga (Sanskrit: नाग, IAST: nāgá, IPA: [nəɡá], Burmese: နဂါး, Javanese: någå, Khmer: នាគ neak, Thai: นาค nak, Chinese: 那伽, Tibetan: ཀླུ་, Bengali: নাগ) is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for a deity or class of entity or being, taking the form of a very great snake—specifically the King Cobra, found in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Note: For more information about Nagas, see section on “Naga Trees”.

When Buddhist scriptures were translated into Chinese, naga was rendered in Chinese as lung, or dragon. Dragons are one of the eight kinds of non-human beings held to be guardians or protectors of Buddhism. Dragons figure importantly in popular folk beliefs and Taoism, often serving as a vehicle for immortals.



By the 9th century AD, the Chinese had incorporated the dragon into Buddhist thought and iconography as a protector of the various Buddha and the Buddhist law. These traditions were adopted by the Japanese (Buddhism did not arrive in Japan until the mid-6th century AD). In both China and Japan, the character for "dragon" (龍) is used often in temple names, and dragon carvings adorn many temple structures. Most Japanese Zen temples, moreover, have a dragon painted on the ceiling of their assembly halls.



The mortal enemy of the dragon is the Phoenix, as well as the bird-man creature known as Karura. In contrast to Western mythology, Asian dragons are rarely depicted as malevolent. Although fearsome and powerful, dragons are equally considered just, benevolent, and the bringers of wealth and good fortune. The dragon is also considered a shape shifter who can assume human form and mate with people.



In China, Japan and Southeast Asia, the dragon serpents are deities of the waters and a benign creature that inhabits the seas, rivers, lakes and clouds and has similar qualities to the Indian naga, which means snake or serpent. They are mainly benevolent and said to have various powers, such as the ability to cause rain. They are also considered to be the depositories of the cintamani. In stories, dragons demand Buddhist treasures, especially relics, sometimes in exchange for quelling storms. In their kingdoms beneath the sea they guard treasures, such as jewels and Buddhist texts.



The dragon is associated with water, and is often shown emerging from vapor and clouds to produce rain. Living in the sky it is considered closely related to heaven, and from early times was used as a symbol of imperial power.



In addition to serving as a deity of rain and of Heaven, the blue-green dragon seiryuu 青竜 is the directional symbol of the east, and thus one of the "guardian animals of the four directions" *shishin 四神.

In both Chinese and Japanese mythology, the dragon is one of Four Legendary Creatures guarding the four cosmic directions (Red Bird - S, Dragon - E, Tortoise - N, and the Tiger - W). The four, known as the Four Celestial Emblems, appear during China's Warring States period (476 BC - 221 BC), and were frequently painted on the walls of early Chinese and Korean tombs to ward off evil spirits.

The Dragon is the Guardian of the East, and is identified with the season spring, the color green/blue, the element wood (sometimes also water), the virtue propriety, the Yang male energy; supports and maintains the country (controls rain, symbol of the Emperor's power). The Guardian of the South, the Red Bird (aka Suzaku, Hō-ō, Phoenix), is the enemy of the dragon, as is the bird-man Garuda. Actually, the Phoenix is the mythological enemy of all , a Sanskrit term covering all types of serpentine creatures, including snakes and dragons. The Dragon (East) and Phoenix (South) both represent Yang energy, but they are often depicted as enemies, for the Dragon represents the element wood, while the Phoenix signifies the element fire. However, they're also often depicted together in artwork as partners. The Dragon is the male counterpart to the female Phoenix, and together they symbolize both conflict and wedded bliss -- the emperor (dragon) and the empress (phoenix).

In Chinese zodiac, the dragon is one of the animals in the 12-year lunar cycle.


About Dragon Kings

Kings of the dragons (Japanese: ryuuou 龍王) are said to live at the bottom of the seas. Eight dragon kings are depicted in the Lotus Sutra in the assembly at Vulture Peak:

“There were eight dragon kings, the dragon king Nanda, the dragon king Upananda, the dragon king Sagara, the dragon king Vasuki, the dragon king Takshaka, the dragon king Anavatapta, the dragon king Manasvin, the dragon king Utpalaka, each with several hundreds of thousands of followers.”

In chapter 12 of the Lotus Sutra called Devadatta, The eight-years old daughter of the dragon king Sagara attained Enlightenment after offering a jewel to Buddha Sakyamuni:

“Bodhisattva Wisdom Accumulated questioned Manjushri, saying, "This sutra is a profound, subtle and wonderful, a treasure among sutras, a rarity in the world. Are there perhaps any living beings who, by earnestly and diligently practicing this sutra, have been able to attain Buddhahood quickly?"

Manjushri replied, "There is the daughter of the dragon king Sagara, who was just turned eight. Her wisdom has keen roots and she is good at the understanding the root activities and of living beings. She has mastered the dharanis, has been able to accept and embrace all the store house of profound secrets preached by the Buddhas, has entered deep into meditation, thoroughly grasping the doctrines, and in the space of an instant conceived the desire for bodhi and reached the level of no regression. Her eloquence knows no hindrance, and she thinks of living beings with compassion as though they were her own children. She is fully endowed with blessings, and when it comes to conceiving in mind and expounding by mouth, she is subtle, wonderful, comprehensive and great. Kind, compassionate, benevolent, yielding, she is gentle and refined in will, capable of attaining bodhi."

Bodhisattva Wisdom Accumulated said, "When I observe Shakyamuni Thus Come One, I see that for immeasurable kalpas he carried out harsh and difficult practices, accumulated merit, piling up virtue, seeking the way to the bodhisattva without ever resting. I observe that throughout the thousand-million fold world there is not a single spot tiny as a mustard seed where this bodhisattva failed to sacrifice body and life the sake of living beings. Only after he had done that was he able to complete the bodhi way. I cannot believe that this girl in the space of the instant could actually achieve correct enlightenment."

Before his words had come to an end, the dragon king's daughter suddenly appeared before the Buddha, bowed her head in obeisance, and then retired to one side, reciting these verses of praise:

He profoundly understands the signs of guilt and good fortune
and illuminates the ten directions everywhere.
His subtle, wonderful pure Dharma body
is endowed with the thirty-two features;
the eighty characteristics
adorn his Dharma body.
Heavenly and human beings gaze up in awe,
dragons and spirits all pay honor and respect;
among all living beings,
none who do not hold him in reverence.
And having heard his teachings, I have attained bodhi -
the Buddha alone can bear witness to this.
I unfold the doctrines of the Great Vehicle
to rescue living beings from suffering.

At that time Shariputra said to the dragon girl, "You suppose that in this short time you have been able to attain the unsurpassed way. But this is difficult to believe. Why? Because a woman's body is soiled and defiled, not a vessel for the Law. How could you attain the unsurpassed bodhi? The road to Buddhahood is long and far-reaching. Only after one has spent immeasurable kalpas pursuing austerities, accumulating deeds, practicing all kinds of paramitas, can one finally achieve success. Moreover, a woman is subject to the five obstacles. First, she cannot become a Brahma heavenly king. Second, she cannot become the king Shakra. Third, she cannot become a devil king. Fourth, she cannot become a wheel-turning sage king. Fifth, she cannot become a Buddha. How then could a woman like you be able to attain Buddhahood so quickly?"

At that time the dragon girl had a precious jewel worth as much as the thousand-million-fold world which she presented to the Buddha. The Buddha immediately excepted it. The dragon girl said to Bodhisattva Wisdom Accumulated to the venerable one, Shariputra, "I presented the precious jewel and the World-Honored One accepted it - was that not quickly done?"

They replied, "Very quickly!"

The girls said, "employ your supernatural powers and watch me attain Buddhahood. It shall be even quicker than that!"

At that time the members of the assembly all saw the dragon girl in the space of an instant change into a man and carry out all the practices of a bodhisattva, immediately proceeding to the Spotless World of the south, taking a seat on a jeweled lotus, and attaining impartial and correct enlightenment. With the thirty-two features and the eighty characteristics, he expounded the wonderful Law for all living beings everywhere in the ten directions.

At that time in the saha world to a the bodhisattvas, voice-hearers, gods, dragons and others of the eight kinds of guardians, human and non-human beings all from a distance saw the dragon girl become a Buddha and preach the law to all the human and heavenly beings in the assembly at that time. Their hearts were filled with great joy and all from a distance paid reverent obeisance. Immeasurable living beings, hearing the Law, understood it and were able to reach the level of no regression. Immeasurable living beings received prophecies that they would gain the away. The Spotless World quaked and trembled in six different ways. Three thousand living beings of the saha world remained on the level of no regression. Three thousand living beings conceived a desire for bodhi and received prophecies of enlightenment. Bodhisattva Wisdom Accumulated, Shariputra and all the other members of the assembly silently believed and accepted these things.”

There is also The Dharma-Seal Sutra Spoken by the Buddha for Ocean Dragon King, translated into Chinese during Tang Dynasty by Tripitaka master Yi-Tzing:

“Thus have I heard, At one time the Bhagavan was in Ocean Dragon King's palace, along with one thousand two hundred and fifty great monks, and many Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas.

At that time, Sagara the dragon king arose from his seat, went ahead, bowed to the feet of the Buddha, and said: "World-Honored One, is it possible to accept and uphold a few Dharmas but gain a lot of blessings?"

The Buddha told Ocean Dragon King: "There are four especially exalted Dharmas, if one can accept, uphold, read, and recite them, and can understand their meanings, although he spends little effort, he will gain lots of blessings. The merits and virtues that he gains will be the same as reading and reciting eighty-four thousand Dharma-Stores."

"What are these four? They are:

All movements are impermanence.
All beings suffer.
Everything has no ego.
The tranquil extinction is the Bliss."

"Dragon king, these are the four especially exalted Dharmas, which can grant the exhaustless Dharma-wisdom to the Bodhisattvas, make them achieve the uncreated stage earlier, and reach the Perfect Tranquility quickly. Therefore, you all should often recite and be mindful of them."

When the World-Honored One spoke this Dharma-Seal Sutra of the four sentences, those Voice-Hearers, great Bodhisattvas, and the eight kinds of super-mundane beings, including the gods, dragons, Asuras, Gandharvas, and so forth, having heard the Buddha's words, were greatly delighted. They accepted the teachings with faith, and began upholding and practicing them.”


Art

The earliest representations of dragon like creatures are Shang and Zhou period (ca. 16c-9c BCE) bronzes and jades bearing abstract animal or monster designs.



By the Warring States or Han period (ca. 8c BC-AD 3c), dragons were frequently painted on tomb walls to ward off evil spirits. Beginning in the late Tang period (9c), the dragon was painted in ink monochrome *suibokuga 水墨画.

NAGA King Mucilinda (Sanskrit) is said to have protected Siddhartha from wind and rain for seven days. This motif is found often in Buddhist art from India, represented by images of the Buddha sitting beneath Mucilinda's hood and coils.

Dragons figure importantly in folk beliefs throughout Asia, and are dressed heavily in Buddhist garb.


Photo of BTRTM Dragon King

The image of the reptilian dragon as known today throughout East Asia had achieved its form by the 9c in Tang ink painting.

The Dragon has has a long serpentine body with a scalloped dorsal fin, the head of a camel, horns of a deer, large eyes with bushy brows of a hare, flaring nostrils, long whiskers and sharp teeth, covered with scales of a carp, paws of a tiger, claw-like feet resembling those of an eagle and pointed tail. In addition it has a bright jewel under its chin, and a measure on the top of its head which enables it to ascend to Heaven at will.



This is merely a general description and does not apply to all dragons, some of which have heads of so extraordinary a kind that they cannot be compared with anything in the animal kingdom. The breath of the Dragon changes into clouds, from which come either rain or fire. It is able to expand or contract its body, and in addition it has the power of transformation and invisibility. The ancient Chinese Emperor Yao was said to be the son of a dragon, and many rulers of that country were metaphorically referred to as dragon-faced,



Dragons often appear as decorative items in temples, as roof ornaments to protect buildings from fire or as water fountains and ablution basins at the entrance to temples.



They are also use as a decorative motif for priestly objects, sculptors, paintings, ceilings, walls, etc.



Large-scale dragon compositions came to be painted on the walls of imperial buildings and of temples. In painting for the Zen 禅 sects, especially, depictions of dragons and tigers *ryuuko-zu 竜虎図 were frequently paired. The famous ink paintings by Muqi 牧谿 (Japanese: Mokkei, late 13c) at Daitokuji 大徳寺, Kyoto, served as the model for countless later Japanese painted versions.

Dragons came to Japan much before ink painting. Examples are found in handscrolls, such as "Charicatures of Animals" Choujuugiga 鳥獣戯画 and Kegon engi 華厳縁起. In Buddhist painting a dragon appears as the crown of the Dragon King (Ryuuou 龍王, one of the *Hachibushuu 八部衆). Japanese dragon painting reached its apogee in the late 16c-early 17c paintings by Kanou and Kaihou artists (*Kanouha 狩野派, *Kaihouha 海北派). It is often suggested that these dragon paintings were intended as symbols of heroic leadership because the dragon calling forth rain is a metaphor for the enlightened ruler seeking able ministers.

The ryuuou may be shown entirely as dragons, as humans with snake's tails, or as humans (usually in Chinese dress) with dragons or snake hoods or some other indication of identity. If multiple heads are shown, they may indicate the identity of the ryuu.

Particularly when termed Dragon Kings (Japanese: ryuuou), they may appear independently in paintings, or they may be shown in groups or as attendants to Buddhist deities. When water is shown in a Buddhist painting, there will often be a dragon in it.


Development of BTRTM Dragons



Venerable Shi Fa Zhao’s concept was for the Hundred Dragons to soar in the clear sky and above the blue sea; each posing gracefully with many different postures; exhibiting their aura of auspiciousness from their majestic and dignified appearance; bestowing prosperity; and bringing security and blessings to all beings.

They are all exquisitely hand crafted and gilded, from Canadian cypress wood in China by highly skilled carvers from Yueqing Global Arts and Crafts Factory of Zhejiang Province, China, led by Mr Zhang Wei Cheng.



The sponsorship of each Hundred Dragon was $10,000.


BTRTM Dragon Ceremonies

During the official Opening ceremony on 30 May 2007, there were more than 80 dragons dancing and prancing on the South Bridge Road and from the verandahs of the temple to welcome guests and visitors.



The stretch of South Bridge road and surrounding area around the BRTRM was also lighted with dragons.


Hundred Buddhas

At both sides of the Maitreya Hall, you will also notice the walls are filled with 100 Buddhas, blessing all who come to the BTRTM. Surrounding these Hundred Buddhas are the gilt Maitreya Gaus. Above hangs the gilt keman, framed by the Hundred Dragons.



Hundred Buddhas in BTRTM


The 100 Buddha statues, with every Buddha statue having different mudras (hand signs) and holding different Buddhist implements or accessories. These symbolize their virtues and powers, both material and spiritual. These symbols can be divided into several categories, for example: lotuses (padma), thunderbolt scepters (vajra), bells (ghanta), wheels (chakra), weapons (ayudha), pots (kalasa), maces (gada), ritual accessories and instruments.



About Hundred Buddhas

In “The Sutra of the Names of the One Hundred Buddhas”, the Buddha told Sariputra,

“If a devout man or woman hears the name of the present Buddha and cherishes it, he/she will be protected from all evil, accumulate immense merit, accomplish the Bodhisattva’s way and gain knowledge of the past, present and future. Moreover, he/she will be good-looking with complete sense faculties and be in the presence of all Buddhas, thus swiftly attaining peerless Enlightenment.”

The same Sutra states that, “these Hundred Buddhas have the perfect ability to help the world and whoever cherishes the hundred holy names, learns by heart, recites, copies, makes offerings reverently and expounds these names will have his greed, hatred, ignorance and fear purified”.

Names of Hundred Buddhas

Starting from the left, here are the names of the Hundred Buddhas displayed on the walls of the Maitreya Hall :-

First Section (Maitreya Hall, Left)

南无月光佛 南无阿閦佛 南无大庄严佛 南无多伽罗香佛 南无常照曜佛 南无栴檀德佛
南无最上佛 南无莲花幢佛 南无莲华生佛 南无宝聚佛 南无阿伽楼香佛 南无大精进佛

Development of BTRTM Hundred Buddhas

These statues were handcrafted by Taiwan Huangmu Art Center at Miao Li, Taiwan.

Ven Shi Fa Zhao visited the workshop in 2005 to discuss and finalise the designs.


A commencement of wood carving blessing ceremony for the Buddha Maitreya and Bodhisattva Cintamanicakra Avalokitesvara was held on 7 November 2005, led by Venerable Shi Fa Zhao with a number of Taiwan Sangha and Singapore devotees. By then, some of the rough statues were ready.


Ven Shi Fa Zhao visited the workshop in January 2006 to review the carved sample for size, shape and quality.


Ven Shi Fa Zhao during another visit to the workshop to review the painted sample for colour and gold linings.


The completed Hundred Buddhas were shipped back to Singapore and temporarily housed at our Dining Hall, for final touchups.


The special lacquer cabinets housing the Hundred Buddhas and Maitreya Gaus were produced by China Chin Ting Enterprise Co Ltd, Fuzhou, China and shipped to Singapore for installation and final touchup works.


The special Japanese brocade cloth used for background was selected after numerous visits to Kyoto, Japan.


The Hundred Buddhas were consecrated on by ???

The sponsorship of each of these Hundred Buddhas was $100,000.

About Keman, with Kinnara


A keman (Japanese : keman 華鬘) is a stylized garland, pendant discs, sort of cast in low-relief, open-work bronze or copper reflector hung in front of lamps or used for architectural decoration in Buddhist temples.

It usually features the Kalavinka (Sanskrit: कलविङ्क, Japanese: Karyoubinga, 迦陵頻伽). Originally a sparrow-like bird that lived in the snowy mountains of the Himalaya range, reputed to possess a melodious voice. Later sutras state that it lived in the paradise (Gokuraku 極楽) of Amida 阿弥陀 Buddha. In pictorial representations, the karyōbinga has the head of a bodhisattva (bosatsu 菩薩) and the winged body of a bird. Its tail resembles the tail of a phoenix (hō-ō 鳳凰). Typically it holds a musical instrument. In Japanese art, the karyōbinga is found in a variety of forms:

They were handcrafted by Mr Takashi Kageyama of the Kageyama Seiskusyo Co Ltd from Tatsuta town, Moriyama city, Shiga prefecture, Japan.

The sponsorship of each Keman was $6,000 with 50 kemans available.

Maitreya Gaus

Surrounding the Hundred Buddhas along the entire expanse of the side walls are the gilt Maitreya Gaus in their respective alcoves.



Maitreya Gaus in BTRTM


The gilt bronze case, handcrafted in Nepal, was designed by Venerable Shi Fa Zhao. It has a traditional stupa shape with two dragons on the sides reaching for the cintamani jewel at the top.



About Gaus

A Gau (Ghau, Gao) is a Tibetan Buddhist amulet container, prayer box, or potable shrine, usually made of metal, used to hold and carry powerful amuletic objects and Buddha statue. As used in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and Mongolia, the Gau box usually contains a written prayer or a sacred yantra diagram such as the kalachakra. The prayers and yantras are usually hand inscribed or block-printed by a priest and they are always blessed before use.

Vajrayana practitioners usually carry their gaus around their neck, for protection and for their spiritual practice.

The process of ornamenting metallic surfaces with designs in relief, forcefully impressed from the back by hand, (repoussé) has been applied to this portable shrine called a Gau. Traditionally, this handy temple contained an image of the traveler's personal deity. Designed to protect the holder from evil spirits while traveling to strange lands, they also contain written prayers, ritual amulets and even earth or grass from the voyager's homeland.

In a Tibetan home the Gau is fashioned in a form more familiar as a shrine, which is kept on an altar, but for the occasional explorer or the nomadic herder alike, this more manageable memorial can be worn over the shoulder, around the neck, or attached to a silk belt.

About Portable Shrines

In Buddhism, portable shrines were made so that devout travelers with nowhere to worship could carry their shrines with them. The shrines were two-piece, and could be shut together to preserve the artwork.

Miniature Buddhas and Goddesses could be carried in small lacquer cases, much resembling the portable phone cases of today, carried on the wrist.

In Tibet, the shrines were sometimes made of metal, and carried with over-the-shoulder straps.


Development of Maitreya Gaus

These exclusive traditional handcrafted Maitreya gau boxes were exquisitely designed by Venerable Shi Fa Zhou and specially made of bronze with gold gilt in Kathmandu, Nepal.


These Maitreya Buddha wood statues were produced by highly skilled carvers from Yueqing Global Arts and Crafts Factory of Zhejiang Province, China.


The gau looks majestic, robust and holy, like a castle. These 1,384 Maitreya gaus were fully sponsored at $5,000 each.

We are currently updating the webpage.

Stay tuned and thank you for your understanding!

We are currently updating the webpage.

Stay tuned and thank you for your understanding!

Bibliography & Websites

Maitreya Trinity

Bibliography:

  1. Bhikkhu Kumarajiva, Maitreyavyakarana Sutra, The Prophecy of Maitreya, A Translation by Bhikkhu Kumarajiva, Mile chengfo jing (彌勒成佛經)
  2. Edward Conze, The Prophecy Concerning Maitreya ('Maitreyavyakarana'), Translation by Edward Conze, in his Buddhist Scriptures, Penguin Books, 1959
  3. Maurice Walshe, Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta: The Lion’s Roar on the Turning of the Wheel, The Long Discourses of the Buddha – A Translation of the Digha Nikaya, Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-103-3
  4. Buddhavamsa, The Chonicles of Buddhas
  5. Elder Ashin Kassapa, Anagatavamsa, The Chronicle of the Future Buddha
  6. Dasabodhisattuppattikartha, The Birth Stories of the Ten Bodhisattas
  7. Śramaṇa Pāramiti, Surangama Sutra, 大佛頂如來密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞嚴經 (commonly楞嚴經), translated in 705 CE byŚramaṇa Pāramiti from Central India, verses 111 – 118
  8. The Coming Buddha Ariya Metteyya, Buddhist Publication Society, Wheel Publication, 1992, ISBN 955-24-0098-8
  9. John Clifford Holt, Anagatavamsa Desana: The Sermon of the Chronicle-To-Be, 1993, ISBN 13-978-81-208-1133-1/9788120811331
  10. Inchang Kim, The Future Buddha Maitreya – An Iconological Study, D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd., 1997, ISBN 81-246-0082-1
  11. Asha Das, Maitreya Buddha in Literature, History and Art, Punthi Pushak, 2003, ISBN 81-86791-38-8
  12. Lokesh Chandra, Dictionary of Buddhist Iconography, International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan, 1999, Vol 7, pages 2054 - 2104
  13. Meher McArthur, Reading Buddhist Art, An Illustrated Guide to Buddhist Signs & Symbols, Thames & Hudson,2002, pages 32 – 33
  14. Louis Frederic, Buddhism, Flammarion Iconographic Guides, 1995, ISBN 2-08013-558-9, pages 118 - 121
  15. Jackie Menzies, Buddha Radiant Awakening, Art Gallery of New South Wales and VisAsia, 2002, ISBN 0734763220, pages 160 – 169
  16. Laurence G Liu, Chinese Architecture, Academy Editions, 1989, ISBN 0-85670-980-8, chapter 4 – religious Buildings, pages 86 - 94

Websites:

  1. Maitreya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. http://what-buddha-said.net/library/pdfs/Metteyya.pdf
  3. http://what-buddha-said.net/library/Metteyya/arimet00.htm
  4. Buddha Pronounces the Sutra of Maitreya Bodhisattva's Attainment of Buddhahood, 佛說彌勒大成佛經
  5. Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor
  6. JAANUS / Miroku 弥勒
  7. Miroku Buddha (Nyorai), Miroku Bodhisattva (Bosatsu) - Japanese Buddhist Saviour of the Future
  8. Hotei - God of Contentment and Happiness; Japanese Buddhism Photo Dictionary Project
  9. 梁思成的佛光真容禅寺(1)_晋东南记忆(1)_百度空间
  10. Foguang Temple - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  11. Chamaecyparis taiwanensis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hundred Heavenly Dragons

Bibliography:

  1. Dragon King of the Sea Sutra, translated by Dharmaraksha, during Western Chin dynasty (265 – 316),
  2. Lotus Sutra, Chapters 1 and 12 – Devadatta, translated by Kumarajiva, 406
  3. Meher McArthur, Reading Buddhist Art, An Illustrated Guide to Buddhist Signs and Symbols, Thames & Hudson, 2002, ISBN 0-500-28428-8, page 137
  4. Soka Gakkai, Dictionary of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, 2002, ISBN 978-81-208-3334-0, page 136 – 137
  5. Louis Frederic, Buddhism, Flammarion Iconographic Guides, Flammarion, 1995, ISBN 2-08013-558-9, pages 276 - 279

Websites:

  1. The Dharma-Seal Sutra Spoken by the Buddha for Ocean Dragon King
  2. The Lotus Sutra
  3. Lotus Sutra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  5. Chinese dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  6. JAANUS / ryuu 龍
  7. Dragons, Dragon Art, and Dragon Lore in Japan, Buddhism & Shintoism Photo Dictionary
  8. The Chinese Dragon - EverythingDragons.com
  9. Chinese Dragons - dragon mythology of China
  10. Chinese Dragons - Draconika

Hundred Buddhas

Bibliography:

  1. The Sutra of the Names of the One Hundred Buddhas
  2. Louis Frederic, Buddhism, Flammarion Iconographic Guides, 1995, ISBN 2-08013-558-9, pages 116
  3. William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 2000, ISBN 81-208-0319-1, pages 236, 317 Kalavinka

Websites:

  1. The Sutra on the Production of Buddha Images
  2. http://www.aisf.or.jp/~jaanus/deta/k/karyoubinga.htm
  3. Japanese Buddhism - Apsaras, Celestial Beings, Heavenly Maidens & Musicians, Tennyo, Karyobinga

Hundred Heavenly Dragons

Bibliography:

  1. Dragon King of the Sea Sutra, translated by Dharmaraksha, during Western Chin dynasty (265 – 316),
  2. Lotus Sutra, Chapters 1 and 12 – Devadatta, translated by Kumarajiva, 406
  3. Meher McArthur, Reading Buddhist Art, An Illustrated Guide to Buddhist Signs and Symbols, Thames & Hudson, 2002, ISBN 0-500-28428-8, page 137
  4. Soka Gakkai, Dictionary of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, 2002, ISBN 978-81-208-3334-0, page 136 – 137
  5. Louis Frederic, Buddhism, Flammarion Iconographic Guides, Flammarion, 1995, ISBN 2-08013-558-9, pages 276 - 279

Websites:

  1. The Dharma-Seal Sutra Spoken by the Buddha for Ocean Dragon King
  2. The Lotus Sutra
  3. Lotus Sutra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  5. Chinese dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  6. JAANUS / ryuu 龍
  7. Dragons, Dragon Art, and Dragon Lore in Japan, Buddhism & Shintoism Photo Dictionary
  8. The Chinese Dragon - EverythingDragons.com
  9. Chinese Dragons - dragon mythology of China
  10. Chinese Dragons - Draconika

Hundred Heavenly Dragons

Bibliography:

  1. Dragon King of the Sea Sutra, translated by Dharmaraksha, during Western Chin dynasty (265 – 316),
  2. Lotus Sutra, Chapters 1 and 12 – Devadatta, translated by Kumarajiva, 406
  3. Meher McArthur, Reading Buddhist Art, An Illustrated Guide to Buddhist Signs and Symbols, Thames & Hudson, 2002, ISBN 0-500-28428-8, page 137
  4. Soka Gakkai, Dictionary of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, 2002, ISBN 978-81-208-3334-0, page 136 – 137
  5. Louis Frederic, Buddhism, Flammarion Iconographic Guides, Flammarion, 1995, ISBN 2-08013-558-9, pages 276 - 279

Websites:

  1. The Dharma-Seal Sutra Spoken by the Buddha for Ocean Dragon King
  2. The Lotus Sutra
  3. Lotus Sutra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  5. Chinese dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  6. JAANUS / ryuu 龍
  7. Dragons, Dragon Art, and Dragon Lore in Japan, Buddhism & Shintoism Photo Dictionary
  8. The Chinese Dragon - EverythingDragons.com
  9. Chinese Dragons - dragon mythology of China
  10. Chinese Dragons - Draconika