Sacred Buddha Tooth Relics and Relics in the World
世界各地的佛牙舍利分布情况

Introduction

The account of the last days of the Buddha is recorded in the Maha Parinibbana Sutta, the great discourse on the attainment of Nirvarna. The other suttas are the Maha Sudassana Sutta and Janavasabha Sutta.

The Maha Parivirvana of the Buddha took place in 544 B.C. at Kusinara in the country of the Mallas. The body was honoured for 6 days and cremated on the 7th day. The fire was extinguished with scented water and a cordon of spearmen and bowmen was put around the cremation site and continued to honour it for 7 days.

The Scared Buddha Relics were divided by Brahmin Professor Dona amongst the 8 claimants as follows:

  1. Mallas of Kusinara;
  2. Ajatasattus of Magadha;
  3. Licchavis of Vesali;
  4. Sakyas of Kapilavatthu;
  5. Bulis of Allakappa;
  6. Koliyas of Ramagama;
  7. Brahamins of Vethadipa;
  8. Mallas of Pava;
  9. Brahmin Professor Dona kept the measuring vessel; and
  10. Moriyas of Pippalivana came after the distribution and was given the charred pieces of firewood.

Each of these monarchs then built a stūpa over his portion of the relics; these were called the “droṇa stūpas” because the division of the relics had been made by a Brahmin named Droṇa and because each one of these enshrined one droṇa (bucketful) of relics.

History of Tooth Relics

The previous section “Sacred Relics of Buddha Sakyamuni” relates to the MahaParanirvana and Distribution of the sacred relics. This section will cover specifically the sacred Buddha Tooth Relics.

According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, verse 6.28:

Eight portions of relics there were of him,
The All-Seeing One. Of these, seven remained
In Jambudīpa with honor. The eighth
In Rāmagāma's kept by nāga kings.
One tooth the Thirty Gods have kept,
Kalinga's kings have one, the nāgas too.
They shed their glory o'er the fruitful earth.
Thus the Seer's honored by the honored.
Gods and nāgas, kings, the noblest men
Clasp their hands in homage, for hard it is
To find another such for countless aeons.

(DN16, note 100: These verses were, as Buddhaghosa (DA) obviously correctly says, added by the Sinhalese Elders.)

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Mahaparinibbana Sutta: The Great Passing, The Buddha’s Last Days, The Long Discourses of the Buddha, A Translation of the Digha Nikaya, Maurice Walshe, Wisdom Publications, 1987, 1995, ISBN 0-86171-103-3, DN 16, Pages 231 – 277
  2. Last Days of the Buddha, The Maha-parinibbana Sutta: Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri lanka, 1964, ISBN 13-978-955-9219-98-9
  3. Mahavamsa, The Great Chronicle of Ceylon, translated by Wilhelm Geiger, Ph.D., Buddhist Culture Center, Sri Lanka, 1912, chapter XVII
  4. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7

Websites:

  1. Relic of the tooth of the Buddha - Wikipedia
  2. Mahāparinibbāṇa Sutta - Wikipedia
  3. Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra - Wikipedia

Introduction

The account of the last days of the Buddha is recorded in the Maha Parinibbana Sutta, the great discourse on the attainment of Nirvarna. The other suttas are the Maha Sudassana Sutta and Janavasabha Sutta.

The Maha Parivirvana of the Buddha took place in 544 B.C. at Kusinara in the country of the Mallas. The body was honoured for 6 days and cremated on the 7th day. The fire was extinguished with scented water and a cordon of spearmen and bowmen was put around the cremation site and continued to honour it for 7 days.

The Scared Buddha Relics were divided by Brahmin Professor Dona amongst the 8 claimants as follows:

  1. Mallas of Kusinara;
  2. Ajatasattus of Magadha;
  3. Licchavis of Vesali;
  4. Sakyas of Kapilavatthu;
  5. Bulis of Allakappa;
  6. Koliyas of Ramagama;
  7. Brahamins of Vethadipa;
  8. Mallas of Pava;
  9. Brahmin Professor Dona kept the measuring vessel; and
  10. Moriyas of Pippalivana came after the distribution and was given the charred pieces of firewood.

Each of these monarchs then built a stūpa over his portion of the relics; these were called the “droṇa stūpas” because the division of the relics had been made by a Brahmin named Droṇa and because each one of these enshrined one droṇa (bucketful) of relics.

History of Tooth Relics

The previous section “Sacred Relics of Buddha Sakyamuni” relates to the MahaParanirvana and Distribution of the sacred relics. This section will cover specifically the sacred Buddha Tooth Relics.

According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, verse 6.28:

Eight portions of relics there were of him,
The All-Seeing One. Of these, seven remained
In Jambudīpa with honor. The eighth
In Rāmagāma's kept by nāga kings.
One tooth the Thirty Gods have kept,
Kalinga's kings have one, the nāgas too.
They shed their glory o'er the fruitful earth.
Thus the Seer's honored by the honored.
Gods and nāgas, kings, the noblest men
Clasp their hands in homage, for hard it is
To find another such for countless aeons.

(DN16, note 100: These verses were, as Buddhaghosa (DA) obviously correctly says, added by the Sinhalese Elders.)

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Mahaparinibbana Sutta: The Great Passing, The Buddha’s Last Days, The Long Discourses of the Buddha, A Translation of the Digha Nikaya, Maurice Walshe, Wisdom Publications, 1987, 1995, ISBN 0-86171-103-3, DN 16, Pages 231 – 277
  2. Last Days of the Buddha, The Maha-parinibbana Sutta: Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri lanka, 1964, ISBN 13-978-955-9219-98-9
  3. Mahavamsa, The Great Chronicle of Ceylon, translated by Wilhelm Geiger, Ph.D., Buddhist Culture Center, Sri Lanka, 1912, chapter XVII
  4. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7

Websites:

  1. Relic of the tooth of the Buddha - Wikipedia
  2. Mahāparinibbāṇa Sutta - Wikipedia
  3. Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra - Wikipedia

King Asoka and the Relics

Ashoka, (304 – 232 BC) was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 273 to 232 BC. Often cited as one of India's as well as the world's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as the brahmagiri in Karnataka and peninsular part of southern India (i.e. Tamil Nadu / Kerala). He conquered the kingdom named Kalinga, which no one in his dynasty had conquered starting from Chandragupta Maurya. His reign was headquartered in Magadha (present-day Bihar, India). He embraced Buddhism from the prevalent Vedic tradition after witnessing the mass deaths of the war of Kalinga, which he himself had waged out of a desire for conquest. He was later dedicated to the propagation of Buddhism across Asia and established monuments marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha. Ashoka in human history is often referred to as the emperor of all ages. Ashoka was a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism. Ashoka is remembered in history as a philanthropic administrator. In the history of India Ashoka is referred to as Samrath Chakravartin Ashoka- the Emperor of Emperors Ashoka.

Along with the Edicts of Ashoka, his legend is related in the later 2nd century Aśokāvadāna ("Narrative of Asoka") and Divyāvadāna ("Divine narrative"), and in the Sinhalese text Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle"). The Ashokavadana (Sanskrit: अशॊकवदन, "Narrative of Ashoka") is a 2nd century CE text related to the legend of the Maurya Emperor Ashoka the Great. The legend was translated into Chinese by Fa Hien in 300 CE.

Ashoka, now a Buddhist emperor, believed that Buddhism is beneficial for all human beings as well as animals and plants, so he built 84,000 stupas, Sangharama, viharas, Chaitya, and residences for Buddhist monks all over South Asia and Central Asia. He gave donations to viharas and mathas. He sent his only daughter Sanghamitta and son Mahindra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka (ancient name Tamraparni). Ashoka also sent many prominent Buddhist monks (bhikshus) Sthaviras like Madhyamik Sthavira to modern Kashmir and Afganistan; Maharaskshit sthavira to Syria, Persia / Iran, Egypt, Greece, Italy and Turkey; Massim Sthavira to Nepal, Bhutan, China and Mongolia; Sohn Uttar Sthavira to modern Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (old name Suvarnabhumi for Burma and Thailand), Thailand and Vietnam; Mahadhhamarakhhita stahvira to Maharashtra (old name Maharatthha); Maharakhhit Sthavira and Yavandhammarakhhita Sthavira to South India. Ashoka also invited Buddhists and non-Buddhists for religious conferences. Ashoka inspired the Buddhist monks to compose the sacred religious texts, and also gave all types of help to that end. Ashoka also helped to develop viharas (intellectual hubs) such as Nalanda and Taxila. Ashoka helped to construct Sanchi and Mahabodhi Temple. Ashoka never tried to harm or to destroy non-Buddhist religions, and indeed gave donations to non-Buddhists. Ashoka helped and respected both Sramans (Buddhists monks) and Brahmins (Vedic monks). Ashoka also helped to organize the Third Buddhist council (c. 250 BCE) at Pataliputra (today's Patna). It was conducted by the monk Moggaliputta-Tissa who was the spiritual teacher of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka.

Years later, when Aśoka set out to collect all the relics of the Buddha for redistribution and re-enshrining in his 84,000 stupas, he encountered no difficulty at all in gathering the shares from the first seven drona stupas, but then he arrived at the naga king’s palace at Ramagrama. In the Aśokāvadāna, the nāgas inform Aśoka that they want to go on worshipping their share of the relics and so refuse to hand it over to him. Aśoka, realizing that he cannot outmatch the nāgas in their devotion and offerings, agrees to this and departs empty-handed.

Despite this failure to gather all the relics of the Buddha, Aśoka proceeds, at least in the Aśokāvadāna, to redistribute and re-enshrine those that he has collected into 84,000 stūpas which he has built throughout the whole of Jambudvīpa. This was to become Aśoka’s most famous legendary act, and, for centuries, pilgrims visiting the holy sites of India habitually ascribed almost every ancient stūpa they came across to Aśoka.

The Aśokāvadāna version of the episode is as follows:

“Then Aśoka had eighty-four thousand boxes made of gold, silver, cat’s eye, and crystal, and in them were placed the relics. Also eighty-four thousand urns and eighty-four thousand inscription plates were prepared. All of this was given to the yakṣas for distribution in the eighty-four thousand stūpas he ordered built throughout the earth as far as the surrounding ocean, in the small, great, and middle-sized towns, wherever there was a population of one hundred thousand persons…”

Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Aśoka (260–218 BCE), according to the edicts of Aśoka

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 5
  2. King Asoka and Buddhism, Historical and Literary Studies, edited by Anuradha Seneviratna, Buddhist Publication Society, 1994, ISBN 978-955-24-0065-0
  3. Asokavadana (Legend of King Asoka), in the Divyavadanna (Divine Stories)
  4. Mahavamsa, The Great Chronicle of Ceylon, Wilhelm Geiger, Ph.D., Buddhist Culture Center, Sri Lanka, 1912

Websites:

  1. Ashoka the Great - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Ashokavadana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Divyavadana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/king_asoka.pdf
  5. http://www.boloji.com/favicon.ico

阿育王和舍利

阿育王(公元前304年-公元前232年)是孔雀王朝的印度皇帝,从公元前273年到公元前232年统治了几乎整个印度次大陆。作为印度和世界上最伟大的皇帝之一,阿育王在一系列军事征服后统治了当今印度的大部分地区。他的帝国从今天的巴基斯坦、西部的阿富汗延伸到今天的孟加拉国和东部的印度阿萨姆邦,并向南延伸到卡纳塔克邦的布拉马吉里和南部印度半岛的一部分(即泰米尔纳德邦/喀拉拉邦)。他征服了卡林加王国,这个王国在他的王朝中从旃陀罗笈多开始就没有征服过。他的政治中心设在摩加达(今天的印度比哈尔邦)。在目睹了卡林加战争的大规模死亡后,他从广大传播的吠陀传统中接受了佛教,而卡林加战争是他自己出于对征服的渴望而发动的。他后来致力于在亚洲传播佛教,并建立了纪念释迦摩尼佛生平的几个重要地点的纪念碑。阿育王是人类历史上伟大的皇帝。阿育王是非暴力、爱、真理、宽容和素食主义者。阿育王作为一名仁慈施政的君王被载入史册。在印度的历史上,阿育王被称为 Samrath Chakravartin Ashoka-——最伟大的阿育王。

阿育王的法令和关于他的传说与公元2世纪后期的“阿育王的叙事”和“神圣叙事”和“僧伽罗文”(“大纪事”)有关。Ashokavadana(梵语:अशॊकवदन,阿育王传)是公元2世纪孔雀王朝的阿育王的传说。这个传说在公元300年被法显翻译成中文。

阿育王,一位崇尚佛教的君王,相信佛教对所有的人以及动物和植物都有益,所以他在南亚和中亚建造了84000座佛塔、寺庙、精舍、圣殿和佛教僧侣住所。他捐助寺院和修道院。他把他唯一的女儿桑哈密塔和儿子马欣德拉送到斯里兰卡传播佛教(古称坦拉帕尼)。阿育王还派了许多著名的佛教僧侣,派Madhyamik上座到现在的克什米尔和阿富汗,叙利亚,波斯/伊朗,埃及,希腊,意大利和土耳其等地;派Massim上座去尼泊尔、不丹、中国和蒙古;派Sohn Uttar上座到现在的柬埔寨、老挝、缅甸(旧名素万那普,缅甸和泰国的意思)到泰国和越南;派Mahadhhamarakhhita上座去马哈拉施特拉邦(旧名摩诃剌侘国);派Maharakhhit上座和Yavandhammarakhhita上座前往印度南部。阿育王还邀请佛教徒和非佛教徒参加宗教会议。阿育王鼓励佛教僧侣撰写神圣的宗教经文,并为此提供了各种帮助。阿育王也帮助建立了寺庙(知识中心),如那烂陀和塔克西拉。阿育王帮助建造了桑吉和摩诃菩提寺。阿育王从未试图伤害或摧毁非佛教的宗教,而且确实给了非佛教徒捐款。阿育王敬重并且帮助沙门(佛教僧侣)和婆罗门(吠陀僧侣)。阿育王还帮助在巴连弗邑(今天的巴特那)组织了第三次佛教会议(约公元前250年)。会议是由莫伽利普塔-提萨和尚主持发起的,他是孔雀王朝阿育王的精神导师。

若干年后,当阿育王着手收集所有的佛陀舍利,再重新分配到他建立的84000座佛塔中,他觉得从另外七处收集舍利并不困难,直到他前往纳加王在拉瑪格拉瑪的宫殿时,纳加王告诉阿育王,他们希望继续保留并供奉舍利,拒绝把舍利给阿育王。阿育王意识到,他没有办法从纳加这里拿到舍利,他尊重纳加的意愿,空手而归。

尽管未能收集所有佛陀的舍利,阿育王继续推进,将他收集的佛陀舍利重新分配并重新供奉到他在整个贾巴德维帕建造的84,000座佛塔中。这成为阿育王最著名的传奇行为,而且几个世纪以来,朝圣者前往印度的圣地习惯性地认为每一座古老佛塔都是阿育王建造的。

“然后,阿育王准备了八万四千个由金,银,猫眼石和水晶等做成的盒子,里面放着舍利。又准备了八万四千个瓮,八万四千个铭文版,所有这些都交给了夜叉,供奉在建造的八万四千座佛塔。这些佛塔分布在各地,周围有海洋环绕,小的,好的和中等规模的城市,凡是超过十万人口的城市”

阿育王时期的佛教传播(公元前260 - 218),根据阿育王的诏书

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 5
  2. King Asoka and Buddhism, Historical and Literary Studies, edited by Anuradha Seneviratna, Buddhist Publication Society, 1994, ISBN 978-955-24-0065-0
  3. Asokavadana (Legend of King Asoka), in the Divyavadanna (Divine Stories)
  4. Mahavamsa, The Great Chronicle of Ceylon, Wilhelm Geiger, Ph.D., Buddhist Culture Center, Sri Lanka, 1912

参考网站

  1. Ashoka the Great - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Ashokavadana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Divyavadana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/king_asoka.pdf
  5. http://www.boloji.com/favicon.ico

Fa Xian (399 – 414 AD)

Faxian (traditional Chinese: 法顯; simplified Chinese: 法显; pinyin: Fǎxiǎn; also romanized as Fa-Hien, Fa-hsien, Fa Xian, et al.) (337 – c. 422 CE) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India, Sri Lanka and Kapilavastu in today's Nepal between 399 and 412 to acquire Buddhist scriptures. His journey is described in his important travelogue, A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms, Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Xian of his Travels in India and Ceylon in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline.

Kie-Sha (Kashgar) V
“there is also a tooth of buddha, for which the people have reared a tope, connected with which there are more than a thousand monks and their disciples,”
Na-Kie (Nagarahara) XIII
“he came to the city He-lo in the borders of the country of Nagara, where there is the flat-bone of Buddha's skull, deposited in a vihara(3) adorned all over with gold-leaf and the seven sacred substances.”
“In the midst of the city there is also the tope of Buddha's tooth, where offerings are made in the same way as to the flat-bone of his skull.”
Ramagama XXIII
“there is a kingdom called Rama. The king of this country, having obtained one portion of the relics of Buddha's body, returned with it and built over it a tope, named the Rama tope.”
Simhala (Ceylon) XXXVIII
“In the city there has been reared also the vihara of Buddha's tooth, on which, as well as on the other, the seven precious substances have been employed.”
“The tooth of Buddha is always brought forth in the middle of the third month.”

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms, Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hein of travels in India and Ceylon (AD 399 – 414) in search of the Buddhist books of Discipline, translated by James Legge, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 1998, ISBN 81-215-0516-X
  2. Buddhist Records of the Western World, Xuan Zang, translated by Samuel Beal, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2004, ISBN 81-215-0741-3, page XXIII

Websites:

  1. Faxian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by James Legge Read and Download Ebooks Free From HolyEbooks_org.htm

法显 (399 – 414 AD)

法显(公元337-422年)是一位中国佛教僧人,他于公元399年至412年间前往印度、斯里兰卡和现今尼泊尔的迦毗罗卫国取经。他的旅行被记载在他重要的游记中,《佛国记》,记录了中国僧人法显为寻找佛教戒律书籍而在印度和锡兰旅行的见闻。

喀什市
“还有一颗佛牙,人们为它建佛塔供养,一千多位比丘及其弟子们息息相关。”
楠格哈尔省
“他来到了位于喀什国边境的He-LO城,那里有佛陀的头骨和平骨,存放在装饰着金箔和七件圣物的的盒子里”
“在城市的中心,还有佛牙的佛塔,人们用供奉佛陀平骨的方式一样供奉这座塔。”
Ramagama XXIII
“还有一个王国叫罗摩,这个国家的国王得到了佛陀的舍利,带了回来 并建造了佛塔供奉,命名为罗摩佛塔”
僧伽罗
“这个城市里也有佛牙寺,供奉在寺院中,同其他寺院一样,使用了七种圣物制成的盒子呈放”
“佛牙通常是在三月中旬展示”

参考书目及网站

参考书目

  1. A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms, Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hein of travels in India and Ceylon (AD 399 – 414) in search of the Buddhist books of Discipline, translated by James Legge, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 1998, ISBN 81-215-0516-X
  2. Buddhist Records of the Western World, Xuan Zang, translated by Samuel Beal, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2004, ISBN 81-215-0741-3, page XXIII

参考网站

  1. Faxian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by James Legge Read and Download Ebooks Free From HolyEbooks_org.htm

Sung Yun

Song Yun (Traditional Chinese: 宋雲; Simplified Chinese: 宋雲; pinyin: Sòng Yùn; Wade-Giles: Sung Yün) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who was sent by the devout Buddhist Empress Hu 胡 (?-528 CE) of the Northern Wei Dynasty with some companions including the monk Hui Zheng, Fa Li and Zheng (or Wang) Fouze, to northwestern India to search for Buddhist texts. They left the Wei capital Luoyang, on foot in 518 and returned in the winter of 522 with 170 Mahayana Buddhist texts.

Na-Kie (Nagarahara)
“In the city of Na-kie is a tooth of Buddha and also some of his hair, both of which are contained in precious caskets; morning and evening religious offerings are made to them.”

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Mission of Sung Yun and Hwei Sang to obtain Buddhist Books in the West, translated from the 5th section of the History of the Temples of Lo-Yang
  2. Buddhist Records of the Western World, Xuan Zang, translated by Samuel Beal, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2004, ISBN 81-215-0741-3, page 1XXXIV

Websites:

  1. Song Yun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Chinese Literature - Luoyang qielan ji 洛陽伽藍記 (www.chinaknowledge.de)

Sung Yun

Song Yun (Traditional Chinese: 宋雲; Simplified Chinese: 宋雲; pinyin: Sòng Yùn; Wade-Giles: Sung Yün) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who was sent by the devout Buddhist Empress Hu 胡 (?-528 CE) of the Northern Wei Dynasty with some companions including the monk Hui Zheng, Fa Li and Zheng (or Wang) Fouze, to northwestern India to search for Buddhist texts. They left the Wei capital Luoyang, on foot in 518 and returned in the winter of 522 with 170 Mahayana Buddhist texts.

Na-Kie (Nagarahara)
“In the city of Na-kie is a tooth of Buddha and also some of his hair, both of which are contained in precious caskets; morning and evening religious offerings are made to them.”

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Mission of Sung Yun and Hwei Sang to obtain Buddhist Books in the West, translated from the 5th section of the History of the Temples of Lo-Yang
  2. Buddhist Records of the Western World, Xuan Zang, translated by Samuel Beal, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2004, ISBN 81-215-0741-3, page 1XXXIV

Websites:

  1. Song Yun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Chinese Literature - Luoyang qielan ji 洛陽伽藍記 (www.chinaknowledge.de)

Narendrayasas (490 – 589)

He recived his precepts at age twenty and then travelled extensively from Himalayas to Sri Lanka and eventually arrived in China in 556.

He visited Nagarahara (Jalalabad) where he viewed the “shadow of the Buddha”, the alms bowl, Buddha’s robe, skull bone and teeth.

The complete translation of the Samadhiraja Sutra was made by Narendrayaśa of the Northern Tshi dynasty in 557 CE.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (續高僧傳 Xù gāosēng zhuàn), Daoxuan
  2. Narendrayasas and the “Final Dharma”, Kuwayama Shoshin, from Buddhism and Buddhist Art of the Tang, edited by Ku Cheng Mei, 2005

Websites:

  1. Samadhiraja Sutra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Narendrayasas (490 – 589)

He recived his precepts at age twenty and then travelled extensively from Himalayas to Sri Lanka and eventually arrived in China in 556.

He visited Nagarahara (Jalalabad) where he viewed the “shadow of the Buddha”, the alms bowl, Buddha’s robe, skull bone and teeth.

The complete translation of the Samadhiraja Sutra was made by Narendrayaśa of the Northern Tshi dynasty in 557 CE.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (續高僧傳 Xù gāosēng zhuàn), Daoxuan
  2. Narendrayasas and the “Final Dharma”, Kuwayama Shoshin, from Buddhism and Buddhist Art of the Tang, edited by Ku Cheng Mei, 2005

Websites:

  1. Samadhiraja Sutra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Daorong (Daoyao)

Na-Ka-Lo-Ho (Nagarahara)
“At Na-ka-lo-ho there is a piece of bone from the top of the Buddha’s skull…, four inches round and yellowish-white in colour, hollow underneath, to receive a man’s finger, and in appearance like a wasp nest.”
“in the city itself, they stopped at another sanctuary, where some teeth and hair of the Buddha were kept in a jeweled reliquary”

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. A Record of Buddhist Monasteries in Lo-Yang, Yang Hsuan Chih, translated by Wang Yi Tung, 1984, Princeton University Press

Websites:

  1. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/favicon.ico
  2. Yang Xuanzhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Daorong (Daoyao)

Na-Ka-Lo-Ho (Nagarahara)
“At Na-ka-lo-ho there is a piece of bone from the top of the Buddha’s skull…, four inches round and yellowish-white in colour, hollow underneath, to receive a man’s finger, and in appearance like a wasp nest.”
“in the city itself, they stopped at another sanctuary, where some teeth and hair of the Buddha were kept in a jeweled reliquary”

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. A Record of Buddhist Monasteries in Lo-Yang, Yang Hsuan Chih, translated by Wang Yi Tung, 1984, Princeton University Press

Websites:

  1. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/favicon.ico
  2. Yang Xuanzhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Xuan Zang (602 – 664 AD)

Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: Xuán Zàng; Wade–Giles: Hsüan-tsang Sanskrit:ह्वेनसांग ) (c. 602 – 664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period.

He became famous for his seventeen year overland journey to India, which is recorded in detail in his autobiography as well as a biography, both of which provided the inspiration for the epic novel Journey to the West.

Po-Ho (Balkh, Baktria)
Navasangharama convent: “Again, there is a tooth of the Buddha about an inch long, and about eight or nine tenths of an inch in breath. Its colour is yellowish white; it is pure and shining.”
Fan-Yen-Na (Bamiyan)
“There is a sangharama here with a tooth of the Buddha, also the tooth of a Pratyeka Buddha”
Kia-Pi-Shi (Kapisa)
“To the north-west of the capital there is a large river on the southern bank of which, in a convent of an old king, there is a milk-tooth of Sakya Bodhisattva; it is an inch in length.”
Na-Ka-Lo-Ho (Nagarahara)
“Within the city is the ruined foundation of a great stupa. Tradition says that it once contained a tooth of Buddha, and that it was high and of great magnificence. Now it has no tooth, but only the ancient foundations remain.”
Hi-Lo (Hadda)
“In the second storey is a little stupa, made of the seven precious substances: it contains the skull-bone of Tathagata; it is 1 foot 2 inches round; the hair orifices are distinct; its colour is a whitish-yellow.”
“Again there is another little stupa, made of the seven precious substances, which encloses the skull-bone of Tathagata. Its shape is like a lotus leaf; its colour is the same as that of the other, and it is also contained in a precious casket, sealed up and fastened.”
“Again, there is another little stupa, made of the seven precious substances, in which is deposited the eye-ball of Tathgata, large as an Amra fruit and bright and clear thoughout; this also is deposited in a precious casket sealed up and fastened.”
Kia-Shi-Mi-Lo (Kasmir)
Adhishthana, “is a sangharama with about 300 priests in it. In the stupa is a tooth of Buddha in length about one inch and a half, of a yellowish-white colour; on religious days it emits a bright light.”
Kie-Jo-Kio-She-Kwo (Kanyakubja)
“In a precious casket in the vihara is a tooth of Buddha, about one and half inches in length, very bright, and of different colours at morning and night.”

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Buddhist Records of the Western World, Xuan Zang, translated by Samuel Beal, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2004, ISBN 81-215-0741-3
  2. On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D, Thomas Watters, Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1904

Websites:

  1. Xuanzang - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions
  3. On Yuan Chwang's travels in India, 629-645 A.D.

Xuan Zang (602 – 664 AD)

Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: Xuán Zàng; Wade–Giles: Hsüan-tsang Sanskrit:ह्वेनसांग ) (c. 602 – 664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period.

He became famous for his seventeen year overland journey to India, which is recorded in detail in his autobiography as well as a biography, both of which provided the inspiration for the epic novel Journey to the West.

Po-Ho (Balkh, Baktria)
Navasangharama convent: “Again, there is a tooth of the Buddha about an inch long, and about eight or nine tenths of an inch in breath. Its colour is yellowish white; it is pure and shining.”
Fan-Yen-Na (Bamiyan)
“There is a sangharama here with a tooth of the Buddha, also the tooth of a Pratyeka Buddha”
Kia-Pi-Shi (Kapisa)
“To the north-west of the capital there is a large river on the southern bank of which, in a convent of an old king, there is a milk-tooth of Sakya Bodhisattva; it is an inch in length.”
Na-Ka-Lo-Ho (Nagarahara)
“Within the city is the ruined foundation of a great stupa. Tradition says that it once contained a tooth of Buddha, and that it was high and of great magnificence. Now it has no tooth, but only the ancient foundations remain.”
Hi-Lo (Hadda)
“In the second storey is a little stupa, made of the seven precious substances: it contains the skull-bone of Tathagata; it is 1 foot 2 inches round; the hair orifices are distinct; its colour is a whitish-yellow.”
“Again there is another little stupa, made of the seven precious substances, which encloses the skull-bone of Tathagata. Its shape is like a lotus leaf; its colour is the same as that of the other, and it is also contained in a precious casket, sealed up and fastened.”
“Again, there is another little stupa, made of the seven precious substances, in which is deposited the eye-ball of Tathgata, large as an Amra fruit and bright and clear thoughout; this also is deposited in a precious casket sealed up and fastened.”
Kia-Shi-Mi-Lo (Kasmir)
Adhishthana, “is a sangharama with about 300 priests in it. In the stupa is a tooth of Buddha in length about one inch and a half, of a yellowish-white colour; on religious days it emits a bright light.”
Kie-Jo-Kio-She-Kwo (Kanyakubja)
“In a precious casket in the vihara is a tooth of Buddha, about one and half inches in length, very bright, and of different colours at morning and night.”

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Buddhist Records of the Western World, Xuan Zang, translated by Samuel Beal, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2004, ISBN 81-215-0741-3
  2. On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D, Thomas Watters, Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1904

Websites:

  1. Xuanzang - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  2. Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions
  3. On Yuan Chwang's travels in India, 629-645 A.D.

Daoxuan (596 – 667 AD)

Dàoxuān (Chinese: 道宣; Wade-Giles: Tao-hsüan; CE 596-667) was the Chinese Buddhist monk who wrote both the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (續高僧傳 Xù gāosēng zhuàn) and Standard Design for Buddhist Temple Construction.

Daoxuan, the Patriach of the Vinaya School, reportedly received the tooth during a nocturnal visitation from a divinity connected to Indra.

This is claimed to be in Xiangguo si in Kaifeng in Honan province, Joju-ji temple in Kyoto, Engaku-ji in Kamakura, palace of King of Koryo, and Sennyu-ji in Kyoto.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7, pages 187 - 190

Websites:

  1. Dàoxuān - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Daoxuan (596 – 667 AD)

Dàoxuān (Chinese: 道宣; Wade-Giles: Tao-hsüan; CE 596-667) was the Chinese Buddhist monk who wrote both the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (續高僧傳 Xù gāosēng zhuàn) and Standard Design for Buddhist Temple Construction.

Daoxuan, the Patriach of the Vinaya School, reportedly received the tooth during a nocturnal visitation from a divinity connected to Indra.

This is claimed to be in Xiangguo si in Kaifeng in Honan province, Joju-ji temple in Kyoto, Engaku-ji in Kamakura, palace of King of Koryo, and Sennyu-ji in Kyoto.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7, pages 187 - 190

Websites:

  1. Dàoxuān - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yi Jing (671 – 695 AD)

Yijing (traditional Chinese: 義淨; simplified Chinese: 义净; pinyin: Yìjìng; Wade-Giles: I Ching; I Tsing) (635–713 CE) was a Tang Dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk, originally named Zhang Wenming (Ch. 張文明). The written records of his travels contributed to the world knowledge of the ancient kingdom of Srivijaya, as well as providing information about the other kingdoms lying on the route between China and the Nālandā Buddhist university in India. He was also responsible for the translation of a large number of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese. Yijing's full Buddhist title was "Tripiṭaka Dharma Master Yijing" (Ch. 三藏法師義淨).

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. A Record of the Buddhist Religion as practised in India and the Malay Archipelago, I Tsing, translated by J Takakusu, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Pvt. Ltd, 1998, ISBN 81-215-0168-7

Websites:

  1. I Ching (monk) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yi Jing (671 – 695 AD)

Yijing (traditional Chinese: 義淨; simplified Chinese: 义净; pinyin: Yìjìng; Wade-Giles: I Ching; I Tsing) (635–713 CE) was a Tang Dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk, originally named Zhang Wenming (Ch. 張文明). The written records of his travels contributed to the world knowledge of the ancient kingdom of Srivijaya, as well as providing information about the other kingdoms lying on the route between China and the Nālandā Buddhist university in India. He was also responsible for the translation of a large number of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese. Yijing's full Buddhist title was "Tripiṭaka Dharma Master Yijing" (Ch. 三藏法師義淨).

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. A Record of the Buddhist Religion as practised in India and the Malay Archipelago, I Tsing, translated by J Takakusu, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Pvt. Ltd, 1998, ISBN 81-215-0168-7

Websites:

  1. I Ching (monk) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sri Dalada Maligawa (Kandy, Sri Lanka)

The Sacred Tooth Relic was brought to Sri Lanka during the reign of King Megawanna (325-377 A.D.) by Prince Danta and Princess Hemamali from India in 371 A.D. According to legend, Hemamali hid the relic in her hair ornament and the royal couple disguised themselves as Brahmins in order to avoid discovery. They set sail from Tamralipti, a port at the mouth of the river Ganges, and landed in Sri Lanka at the port of Lankapattana (now Ilankeiturei).

It is said that Sri Lanka was chosen as the new home for the tooth relic because the Lord Buddha had declared that his religion would be safe in Sri Lanka for 2,500 years.

At the time of Dantha's and Hemamali's arrival on the island, King Kirti Sri Megavanna or Kithsirimevan ruled Sri Lanka. The King was overjoyed when he heard the news and warmly welcomed the royal couple and received the Sacred Tooth Relic with great veneration. He built a beautiful palace within the Royal Palace Complex itself and enshrined the Relic in it. Thereafter, he ordered that an annual perahera be held in honour of the Sacred Relic.

As time went on, as the land was threatened with foreign invasions, the seat of the kingdom was moved from Anuradhapura to Polonnaruwa, then to Dambadeniya and other cities. Upon each change of capital, a new palace was built to enshrine the Relic. Finally, it was brought to Kandy where it is at present, in the Sri Dalada Maligawa temple.

The Sacred Tooth Relic came to be regarded as a symbolic representation of the living Buddha and it is on this basis that there grew up a series of offerings, rituals, and ceremonies. These are conducted under the supervision of the two Mahanayake Theros of Malwatte, Asgiriya Chapters, and Diyawadana Nilame of the Maligawa. These have a hierarchy of officials and temple functionaries to perform the services and rituals.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7, pages 190 – 196
  2. Dathavamsa, Tooth Chronicle
  3. A Record of the Buddhist Religion as practised in India and the Malay Archipelago, I Tsing, translated by J Takakusu, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Pvt. Ltd, 1998, ISBN 81-215-0168-7
  4. The Tooth Relic and the Crown, Dharmaratna Herath, Gunaratne Offset Ltd, 1994, ISBN 955-95663-0-X
  5. Buddhist Rituals and Ceremonies, Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic in Sri Lanka, Anuradha Seneviratna, Government Press Sri Lanka, 1990
  6. Sri Lanka The Kandy Perahera, Victor Ratnavale, West Pacific Associates Pte Ltd, 1978

Websites:

  1. http://www.sridaladamaligawa.lk/
  2. Dipavamsa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Relic of the tooth of the Buddha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

斯里兰卡康提市佛牙寺

The Sacred Tooth Relic was brought to Sri Lanka during the reign of King Megawanna (325-377 A.D.) by Prince Danta and Princess Hemamali from India in 371 A.D. According to legend, Hemamali hid the relic in her hair ornament and the royal couple disguised themselves as Brahmins in order to avoid discovery. They set sail from Tamralipti, a port at the mouth of the river Ganges, and landed in Sri Lanka at the port of Lankapattana (now Ilankeiturei).

It is said that Sri Lanka was chosen as the new home for the tooth relic because the Lord Buddha had declared that his religion would be safe in Sri Lanka for 2,500 years.

At the time of Dantha's and Hemamali's arrival on the island, King Kirti Sri Megavanna or Kithsirimevan ruled Sri Lanka. The King was overjoyed when he heard the news and warmly welcomed the royal couple and received the Sacred Tooth Relic with great veneration. He built a beautiful palace within the Royal Palace Complex itself and enshrined the Relic in it. Thereafter, he ordered that an annual perahera be held in honour of the Sacred Relic.

As time went on, as the land was threatened with foreign invasions, the seat of the kingdom was moved from Anuradhapura to Polonnaruwa, then to Dambadeniya and other cities. Upon each change of capital, a new palace was built to enshrine the Relic. Finally, it was brought to Kandy where it is at present, in the Sri Dalada Maligawa temple.

The Sacred Tooth Relic came to be regarded as a symbolic representation of the living Buddha and it is on this basis that there grew up a series of offerings, rituals, and ceremonies. These are conducted under the supervision of the two Mahanayake Theros of Malwatte, Asgiriya Chapters, and Diyawadana Nilame of the Maligawa. These have a hierarchy of officials and temple functionaries to perform the services and rituals.

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7, pages 190 – 196
  2. Dathavamsa, Tooth Chronicle
  3. A Record of the Buddhist Religion as practised in India and the Malay Archipelago, I Tsing, translated by J Takakusu, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Pvt. Ltd, 1998, ISBN 81-215-0168-7
  4. The Tooth Relic and the Crown, Dharmaratna Herath, Gunaratne Offset Ltd, 1994, ISBN 955-95663-0-X
  5. Buddhist Rituals and Ceremonies, Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic in Sri Lanka, Anuradha Seneviratna, Government Press Sri Lanka, 1990
  6. Sri Lanka The Kandy Perahera, Victor Ratnavale, West Pacific Associates Pte Ltd, 1978

Websites:

  1. http://www.sridaladamaligawa.lk/
  2. Dipavamsa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Relic of the tooth of the Buddha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Beijing Lingguang Monastery (Badachu, Beijing, China)

The Badachu (simplified Chinese: 八大处; traditional Chinese: 八大處; pinyin: bādàchǔ; also known as "Badachu Park"), is a complex of monasteries located on the outskirts of urban Beijing, which means "Eight Great Sites" that refers to the eight Buddhist temples and nunneries scattered across the Cuiwei, Pingpo, and Lushi hills in Shijingshan District, at the foot of Beijing's Western Hills.

Less than half a kilometer up Cuiwei Hill one comes to the Temple of Divine Light. Originally called the Dragon Spring Temple, its name was changed to the Mountain of Awakening Temple in 1162. In 1428, during the Ming Dynasty, it was restored and resumed its old name, and in1478, it was finally given its present name.

The Temple of Divine Light originally contained a number of fine old buildings, carvings and statues, but the Eight-Power Allied Forces destroyed all these when they occupied Beijing in 1900. One notable structure was a large octagonal Liao Dynasty pagoda constructed in 1071 of carved bricks. Originally situated to the east of the goldfish pond, it was called the Pagoda for Entertaining Immortals. All that remains now is its foundation. The pagoda is important in the history of Buddhism in China since, according to the records, when Buddha was cremated all that remained in his ashes were four teeth, one of which was brought to China in the 11th century and placed here. The Liao dynastic history records that Emperor Daozong (reigned 1055-1100) placed the Tooth in a pagoda here. After the destruction of the pagoda in 1900, monks searching through the rubble found a stone chest containing a wooden box in which they discovered the Buddha's Tooth. In 855-108 years before the building of the pagoda in 963-the monk Shan Hui carved the words" The Tooth of Sakyamuni,” the date and some Buddhist incantations in Sanskrit on the inner and outer surfaces of the stone chest. The Tooth remained in the temple until 1955 when it was removed to the Guangji Temple by the Chinese Buddhist Association and placed in the Hall of Buddhist Relics.

In 1956, the People's Government erected a new 13-story pagoda on the site of the Liao foundation and named it the "Pagoda of the Buddha's Tooth."

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7, pages 185 – 187

Websites:

  1. http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijing/31172.htm
  2. http://www.lingguangsi.com
  3. http://www.lingguangsi.com/list.aspx?cid=5

中国北京灵光寺

The Badachu (simplified Chinese: 八大处; traditional Chinese: 八大處; pinyin: bādàchǔ; also known as "Badachu Park"), is a complex of monasteries located on the outskirts of urban Beijing, which means "Eight Great Sites" that refers to the eight Buddhist temples and nunneries scattered across the Cuiwei, Pingpo, and Lushi hills in Shijingshan District, at the foot of Beijing's Western Hills.

Less than half a kilometer up Cuiwei Hill one comes to the Temple of Divine Light. Originally called the Dragon Spring Temple, its name was changed to the Mountain of Awakening Temple in 1162. In 1428, during the Ming Dynasty, it was restored and resumed its old name, and in1478, it was finally given its present name.

The Temple of Divine Light originally contained a number of fine old buildings, carvings and statues, but the Eight-Power Allied Forces destroyed all these when they occupied Beijing in 1900. One notable structure was a large octagonal Liao Dynasty pagoda constructed in 1071 of carved bricks. Originally situated to the east of the goldfish pond, it was called the Pagoda for Entertaining Immortals. All that remains now is its foundation. The pagoda is important in the history of Buddhism in China since, according to the records, when Buddha was cremated all that remained in his ashes were four teeth, one of which was brought to China in the 11th century and placed here. The Liao dynastic history records that Emperor Daozong (reigned 1055-1100) placed the Tooth in a pagoda here. After the destruction of the pagoda in 1900, monks searching through the rubble found a stone chest containing a wooden box in which they discovered the Buddha's Tooth. In 855-108 years before the building of the pagoda in 963-the monk Shan Hui carved the words" The Tooth of Sakyamuni,” the date and some Buddhist incantations in Sanskrit on the inner and outer surfaces of the stone chest. The Tooth remained in the temple until 1955 when it was removed to the Guangji Temple by the Chinese Buddhist Association and placed in the Hall of Buddhist Relics.

In 1956, the People's Government erected a new 13-story pagoda on the site of the Liao foundation and named it the "Pagoda of the Buddha's Tooth."

Bibliography & Websites

Bibliography:

  1. Relics of the Buddha, John S. Strong, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN-13:978-0-691-11764-5, chapter 7, pages 185 – 187

Websites:

  1. http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijing/31172.htm
  2. http://www.lingguangsi.com
  3. http://www.lingguangsi.com/list.aspx?cid=5

Maha Bawdhi Tatung Monastery (Myingyan, Myanmar)

Myingyan is a city and district in the Mandalay Division of central Myanmar, previously, it was a district in the Meiktila Division of Upper Burma. It is currently the capital of Myingyan Township and lies along the National Highway 2.

This Sacred Buddha Tooth was found by a lay-devotee from a derelict Thanton pagoda. Since then, it was kept by this devotee’s descendants. The last person donated this to Venerable Kondanna, who built the Buddha Relics Chamber in Myingyan.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. Myingyan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

中国北京灵光寺

Myingyan is a city and district in the Mandalay Division of central Myanmar, previously, it was a district in the Meiktila Division of Upper Burma. It is currently the capital of Myingyan Township and lies along the National Highway 2.

This Sacred Buddha Tooth was found by a lay-devotee from a derelict Thanton pagoda. Since then, it was kept by this devotee’s descendants. The last person donated this to Venerable Kondanna, who built the Buddha Relics Chamber in Myingyan.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. Myingyan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bandoola Monastery (Mrauk-U, Myanmar)

Mrauk U (Burmese: မြောက်‌ဦးမြို့; MLCTS: mrauk u: mrui., Burmese pronunciation: [mjauʔ ú mjo̰]) is an archaeologically important town in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar. It is also the capital of Mrauk-U Township, a sub region of the Sittwe District. It was the capital of Mrauk U Kingdom, the most important and powerful Rakhine (Arakanese) kingdom from 1433 to 1784.

This Sacred Buddha Tooth and many relics were enshrined in the Min Paung Paya, a pagoda built for kings during the Waidali Dynasty. When lightning destroyed the pagoda, a villager found these and sold them to the then Abbot of the monastery.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. Mrauk U - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

中国北京灵光寺

Mrauk U (Burmese: မြောက်‌ဦးမြို့; MLCTS: mrauk u: mrui., Burmese pronunciation: [mjauʔ ú mjo̰]) is an archaeologically important town in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar. It is also the capital of Mrauk-U Township, a sub region of the Sittwe District. It was the capital of Mrauk U Kingdom, the most important and powerful Rakhine (Arakanese) kingdom from 1433 to 1784.

This Sacred Buddha Tooth and many relics were enshrined in the Min Paung Paya, a pagoda built for kings during the Waidali Dynasty. When lightning destroyed the pagoda, a villager found these and sold them to the then Abbot of the monastery.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. Mrauk U - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fo Guang Shan Monastery (Kaoshiung, Taiwan)

The Buddha Tooth Relic Shrine is located on the fourth floor of the Tathagata Hall. Originally this shrine was the Fo Guang Sima, used for precept ordination. In April 1998, the Buddha Tooth Relic, made its way from India via Thailand, and was enshrined here with all respect and honor due. It is here for Buddhist devotees to worship and venerate, until construction on the Buddha Memorial Center is completed.

The relics of the Buddha’s body are known as sarira, and are remaining bone fragments from the Buddha’s cremation. It is recorded in the Buddhist sutras that: “Sarira are from the cultivation of morality, meditation and wisdom. They are extremely rare, and the supreme field of merit.” After the Buddha’s Parinirvana, his entire body became many fine relics, along with four complete teeth. Of these four tooth relics, one passed on to the Trayastrimsa heaven, one passed on to Malagawa Temple in Sri Lanka, one passed to Lingguang Temple in Beijing, and the fourth was in Tibet until 1998, when Tibetan Lama Kongadorje Rinpoche bestowed it upon Venerable Master Hsing Yun of Fo Guang Shan.

Under the protection of Thailand’s Dharmaraja, Somdet Phrayanwarodom Mahathera, who confirmed and received the relic, it traveled from Tibet, via Nepal and Thailand, until it was received by Fo Guang Shan as an offering of the Dharma Jewel for the long life of the nation. Fo Guang Shan wished to give and share the Buddha Tooth relic with the entire country, and thus started construction on the Buddha Memorial Center as a permanent site of offering where everyone could worship. Fo Guang Shan hopes that this most excellent of offerings will act to protect the nation, keeping it safe from natural disasters, and bringing peace and happiness to the entire world.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. http://www.fgs.org.tw/english/organization/templetour/templetour/buddharelic.htm
  2. http://www.fgs.org.tw
  3. http://www.fgs.org.tw/subject/subject_stupa_04.aspx
  4. History of the Buddha Memorial Center

台湾高雄县大树乡佛光山寺

The Buddha Tooth Relic Shrine is located on the fourth floor of the Tathagata Hall. Originally this shrine was the Fo Guang Sima, used for precept ordination. In April 1998, the Buddha Tooth Relic, made its way from India via Thailand, and was enshrined here with all respect and honor due. It is here for Buddhist devotees to worship and venerate, until construction on the Buddha Memorial Center is completed.

The relics of the Buddha’s body are known as sarira, and are remaining bone fragments from the Buddha’s cremation. It is recorded in the Buddhist sutras that: “Sarira are from the cultivation of morality, meditation and wisdom. They are extremely rare, and the supreme field of merit.” After the Buddha’s Parinirvana, his entire body became many fine relics, along with four complete teeth. Of these four tooth relics, one passed on to the Trayastrimsa heaven, one passed on to Malagawa Temple in Sri Lanka, one passed to Lingguang Temple in Beijing, and the fourth was in Tibet until 1998, when Tibetan Lama Kongadorje Rinpoche bestowed it upon Venerable Master Hsing Yun of Fo Guang Shan.

Under the protection of Thailand’s Dharmaraja, Somdet Phrayanwarodom Mahathera, who confirmed and received the relic, it traveled from Tibet, via Nepal and Thailand, until it was received by Fo Guang Shan as an offering of the Dharma Jewel for the long life of the nation. Fo Guang Shan wished to give and share the Buddha Tooth relic with the entire country, and thus started construction on the Buddha Memorial Center as a permanent site of offering where everyone could worship. Fo Guang Shan hopes that this most excellent of offerings will act to protect the nation, keeping it safe from natural disasters, and bringing peace and happiness to the entire world.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. http://www.fgs.org.tw/english/organization/templetour/templetour/buddharelic.htm
  2. http://www.fgs.org.tw
  3. http://www.fgs.org.tw/subject/subject_stupa_04.aspx
  4. History of the Buddha Memorial Center

Sennyu-ji Temple (Kyoto, Japan)

Sennyū-ji (泉涌寺 ,Sennyū-ji), formerly written as Sen-yū-ji (仙遊寺 ,Sen'yū-ji), is a Buddhist temple in Higashiyama-ku in Kyoto. Sennyū-ji was founded in the early Heian period. The origin of this temple, which is commonly called Mitera or Mi-dera, can be traced back to the Tenchō era (824-834) when the priest Kūkai established a small temple in this location. That modest structure and community were initially known as Horin-ji. The major buildings in Senyu-ji was very much reconstructed and enlarged in the early 13th century.

For centuries, Sennyū-ji was a mortuary temple for aristocrats and the imperial house. Located here are the official tombs of Emperor Shijo and many of the emperors who came after him.

The building of the Shari-den (relic's hall) was moved from the Imperial Palace and reformed into the two-storied building. Relics are kept within the stupa in the Naijin section. The ceiling is decorated with a painting of a dragon by Kano Sansetsu, which is widely known as "a roaring dragon."

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. http://www.mitera.com/HTML/ENGLISH/INTROE~1.HTM
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senny%C5%AB-ji
  3. http://www.mitera.org

台湾高雄县大树乡佛光山寺

Sennyū-ji (泉涌寺 ,Sennyū-ji), formerly written as Sen-yū-ji (仙遊寺 ,Sen'yū-ji), is a Buddhist temple in Higashiyama-ku in Kyoto. Sennyū-ji was founded in the early Heian period. The origin of this temple, which is commonly called Mitera or Mi-dera, can be traced back to the Tenchō era (824-834) when the priest Kūkai established a small temple in this location. That modest structure and community were initially known as Horin-ji. The major buildings in Senyu-ji was very much reconstructed and enlarged in the early 13th century.

For centuries, Sennyū-ji was a mortuary temple for aristocrats and the imperial house. Located here are the official tombs of Emperor Shijo and many of the emperors who came after him.

The building of the Shari-den (relic's hall) was moved from the Imperial Palace and reformed into the two-storied building. Relics are kept within the stupa in the Naijin section. The ceiling is decorated with a painting of a dragon by Kano Sansetsu, which is widely known as "a roaring dragon."

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. http://www.mitera.com/HTML/ENGLISH/INTROE~1.HTM
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senny%C5%AB-ji
  3. http://www.mitera.org

Engaku-ji Temple (Kamakura, Japan)

Engaku-ji is number two of the Kamakura Five Mountain Zen temples, and the head of the Engaku-ji branch of Rinzai Zen Buddhism. It was founded in 1282 by the eighth Kamakura regent Hojo Tokimune 北条時宗 (1251–1284), who wished both to spread the Zen teachings and to bring peace to the spirits of all those, both Japanese and Mongol, who had perished during the Mongol invasions of 1274 and 1281. Tokimune invited his Zen teacher, the Chinese priest Wuxue Zuyuan 無學祖元 (J., Mugaku Sogen; 1226–1286), to serve as the first abbot.

It is said that the temple was named Engaku-ji, “Temple of Perfect Enlightenment,” because a copy of the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 was unearthed during construction. The mountain name, Zuirokuzan, “Auspicious Deer Mountain,” derives from the legend that at the time of the opening ceremony for the Buddha Hall a herd of deer came to listen to Wuxue Zuyuan’s sermon.

The Shariden (Reliquary), first built in 1285 and restored after a fire in 1563, is also a National Treasure, and is said to contain a Tooth of the Buddha brought from China.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. http://zen.rinnou.net/favicon.ico
  2. http://www.engakuji.or.jp

圆觉寺(镰仓,日本)

圆觉寺在镰仓五山禅寺中排名第二,是临济宗圆觉寺的总统领。圆觉寺由镰仓幕府的第八代掌权人北条时宗(1251-1284)建立于1282年。他希望扩大佛教影响力和让那些在公元1274-1281年蒙古入侵期间战死的日本和蒙古将士的亡灵安息。北条时宗请来了他的老师,中国的得道高僧无学祖元(1226-1286)主持开山。

据说寺庙被命名为“圆觉寺”,“圆满的觉醒”,因为在寺院施工期间发现了一本《圆觉经》。这座山命名为“瑞鹿山”,意为“吉祥的鹿山”,源于传说寺院开殿时候,有一群鹿来听无学祖元的布道。

圆觉寺最早建于1285年,在1563年的一场大火后修复,是国家宝藏,据说里面供奉着来自中国的佛牙舍利。

参考书目及网站

参考网站

  1. http://zen.rinnou.net/favicon.ico
  2. http://www.engakuji.or.jp

Yinxian Pagoda (Shanxi, China)

The Sakyamuni Pagoda of Fogong Temple (Chinese: 佛宫寺释迦塔; pinyin: Fógōng Sì Shìjiā Tǎ) of Ying County, Shanxi province, China, is a wooden Chinese pagoda built in 1056, during the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty. The pagoda was built by Emperor Daozong of Liao (Hongji) at the site of his grandmother's family home. The pagoda, which has survived several large earthquakes throughout the centuries, reached a level of such fame within China that it was given the generic nickname of the "Muta" (Chinese: 木塔; pinyin: mùtǎ; literally "Timber Pagoda").

The pagoda stands on a 4 m (13 ft) tall stone platform, has a 10 m (33 ft) tall steeple, and reaches a total height of 67.31 m (220.83 ft) tall; it is the oldest existent fully wooden pagoda still standing in China. Although it is the oldest fully wooden pagoda in China, the oldest existent pagoda is the 6th century Songyue Pagoda made of brick and the oldest existent wooden buildings in China date back to the mid Tang Dynasty (618–907), which are Buddhist temple halls found at Mount Wutai.

Bibliography & Websites

Websites:

  1. http://www.yxmt.net.cn/ReadNews.asp?NewsId=1104
  2. Pagoda of Fogong Temple - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Application of Sakyamuni Pagoda for UNESCO cultural relics to be finished by July

圆觉寺(镰仓,日本)

圆觉寺在镰仓五山禅寺中排名第二,是临济宗圆觉寺的总统领。圆觉寺由镰仓幕府的第八代掌权人北条时宗(1251-1284)建立于1282年。他希望扩大佛教影响力和让那些在公元1274-1281年蒙古入侵期间战死的日本和蒙古将士的亡灵安息。北条时宗请来了他的老师,中国的得道高僧无学祖元(1226-1286)主持开山。

据说寺庙被命名为“圆觉寺”,“圆满的觉醒”,因为在寺院施工期间发现了一本《圆觉经》。这座山命名为“瑞鹿山”,意为“吉祥的鹿山”,源于传说寺院开殿时候,有一群鹿来听无学祖元的布道。

圆觉寺最早建于1285年,在1563年的一场大火后修复,是国家宝藏,据说里面供奉着来自中国的佛牙舍利。

参考书目及网站

参考网站

  1. http://zen.rinnou.net/favicon.ico
  2. http://www.engakuji.or.jp

Baoxiang Temple (Wenshang, Shandong, China)

Baoxiang Temple is a well preserved Buddhist temple constructed during the Northern and Southern Dynasties (502- 581) and the cultural relics in the temple are still well kept.

In 1994, 141 pieces of Buddhism articles, such as Buddha bones and sariras were unearthed at the Prince’s Soul Trace Pagoda (Taizi Lingzong Pagoda), where a great many holy Buddha relics were excavated in 1994. At that time, this was an amazing architectural discovery astonishing both China and the world.

Baoxiang Temple is one of the Buddhist spots opened to the outside worldto host Buddhism ceremonies in China. The Buddha Halo Festival, which is held every year,attracts many eminent monks to assemble at Baoxiang Temple to worship the reappearance of the Buddha halo.

At the invitation of the Party Secretary of Wenshang, Ven Shi FaZhao visited Wang Jia Bao Xiang Temple on 12 April 2009 for the Consecration of the renovated Temple, as well as to view and venerate the Sacred Buddha Tooth and Relics.

圆觉寺(镰仓,日本)

圆觉寺在镰仓五山禅寺中排名第二,是临济宗圆觉寺的总统领。圆觉寺由镰仓幕府的第八代掌权人北条时宗(1251-1284)建立于1282年。他希望扩大佛教影响力和让那些在公元1274-1281年蒙古入侵期间战死的日本和蒙古将士的亡灵安息。北条时宗请来了他的老师,中国的得道高僧无学祖元(1226-1286)主持开山。

据说寺庙被命名为“圆觉寺”,“圆满的觉醒”,因为在寺院施工期间发现了一本《圆觉经》。这座山命名为“瑞鹿山”,意为“吉祥的鹿山”,源于传说寺院开殿时候,有一群鹿来听无学祖元的布道。

圆觉寺最早建于1285年,在1563年的一场大火后修复,是国家宝藏,据说里面供奉着来自中国的佛牙舍利。

参考书目及网站

参考网站

  1. http://zen.rinnou.net/favicon.ico
  2. http://www.engakuji.or.jp

How the Museum is Supported Financially
博物馆是如何获得财政支持的

The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple & Museum follows the traditional Buddhist practice of offering the Dharma (Teachings of the Buddha) to all, and we do not charge any fees for admission to our temple museum. At ‘Buddhas of the World’ Museum, we share the Dharma through the exhibits of the Buddha Shakyamuni, Buddha Maitreya and sacred relics of the Buddha. Your generous donations will help us to acquire, conserve and promote Buddhist artefacts and artworks, for the present and future generations to come.

佛牙寺龙华院遵从传统佛教戒律,广传佛法,我们寺院博物馆不收取任何入门的费用。在世界佛像博物馆,我们通过展出释迦摩尼佛,弥勒佛和佛陀的舍利子来传播佛法。您慷慨的捐赠将会帮助我们收集,保存和推广佛教文物和艺术品,呈现给现在和未来的访客。

Please lend a helping hand by donating to our BTRTS Museum Fund, thank you for your kind donation and may you have bountiful blessings on your Dharma journey!

请伸出您的援手捐款给新加坡佛牙寺博物馆基金,感谢您的善举,祝愿您的佛法之旅万福!